Sunday, December 26, 2010

Article III: The Church Covenant - 101226AM@TBC - by Phil Martin for God’s glory

·        First requirement of church membership is à salvation.  (explain)
·        What does it mean to be part of the body of Christ?
·        Local church membership is a concrete expression of a believer’s commitment to function together with other saints as part of Christ’s body.
·        Definition of a Covenant

Covenant:  an agreement, usually formal, between two or more persons to do or not do something specified. Unabridged. Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2010.
We, the Members of this Church, do affectionately welcome you into the fellowship with us in the blessings of the Gospel, and covenant together, God helping us,
·        that as strangers and pilgrims we will refrain from fleshly lusts (I Peter 2: 11).
·        That we will put away from us all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and evil speaking and be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven us (Eph. 4:31-32).
·        That as we have opportunity, we will do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith (Gal. 6: 10).
·        That we will remember them who have the rule over us who speak unto us the Word of God (Heb. 13:7). That we submit to the loving oversight and discipline of the Members and officers of this Church of Christ, and
·        that we will give as God has prospered us (I Cor. 16:2), not grudgingly, or of necessity, for God loveth a cheerful giver (II Cor. 9:7).
Today we will review the five commitmenst of the TBC Church Covennat.  However these are also Scritural imperatives for all blielievers.

1) Strangers who have a heavenly home
1 Peter 2.9-12 (esp. 11)
9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light. 10 Once you were not a people, but now you are God's people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.
11 Beloved, I beg you as sojourners and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul, 12 having your conduct honorable among the Gentiles, that when they speak against you as evildoers, they may, by your good works which they observe, glorify God in the day of visitation.
A. Context:
1) Before  because of these …  He exhorts us
We are a race, priesthood, nation, and God’s people why?
2. 9 to proclaim His excellencies
2.10 (because) we are now His people
2. 10 (because) you have received mercy
2) After
1. Honorable conduct
2. Description of the lives of those who are subject to God’s rule.
2.13 Be subject to every human institution...
2.18 Servants, be subject...
3.1 Wives, be subject
B. Key Ideas:
1. Strangers and pilgrims” describes our attitude.
Strangers  προικος   Strong’s G3941 – paroikos—in the NT, a stranger, a foreigner, one who lives in a place without the right of citizenship
ylt, kjvstrangers; nasb, niv, wet—aliens; nkjv, esv—sojourners
Pilgrims  παρεπδημος  Strong’s G3927 – parepidēmosone who comes from a foreign country into a city or land to reside there by the side of the natives
ylt—sojourners; kjv, nkjv—pilgrims; nasb, niv—strangers; esv—exiles; nlt—foreigners
Hebrews 11
13 These [Abraham, Isaac, Jacob] all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off were assured of them, embraced them and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. 14 For those who say such things declare plainly that they seek a homeland. 15 And truly if they had called to mind that country from which they had come out, they would have had opportunity to return. 16 But now they desire a better, that is, a heavenly country. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for He has prepared a city for them.
  • We should not get too comfortable here on earth.
  • We should not see retirement as our final destination.
  • We are to look beyond this world.
2.  Fleshly lusts should be resisted.
Abstain  πχομαι  Strong’s G567 – apechomai  - 1) to hold one’s self off, refrain, abstain
ylt, kjv, nasb, nkjv, esv, niv—abstain; wet—holding yourselves back; ylt—keep away from
 fleshly lusts
ylt,niv, ylt—desires; kjv, nasb, nkjv—lusts;  esv—passions; wet—cravings
3. The fleshly desires will destroy the soul.
War 4754 στρατεύομαι [strateuomai /strat·yoo·om·ahee/] — 1) to make a military expedition, to lead soldiers to war or to battle, (spoken of a commander)  2) to do military duty, be a soldier 3) to fight
C. Motivation:
·        Honorable conduct so that the gentiles will glorify God. (see verse 9—to proclaim)
·        We as God’s race, priesthood, nation, and people are not part of this world’s system and should not participate in its games or “buy its wares.”
D. Application:
Pilgrims Progress—Vanity Fair
·        Resisting the attitudes, actions, and values of this world.
·        Say focused on the Heavenly country.
TE: Since Christians are citizens of heaven,
they should put off the former life
and embrace the values and life of the new man.
Some of these values are discussed in our next passage.

2) Forgivers who have a tender heart.
Ephesians 4.17-24; 31-32
17 This I say, therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you should no longer walk as the rest of the Gentiles walk, in the futility of their mind, 
20 But you have not so learned Christ, 21 if indeed you have heard Him and have been taught by Him, as the truth is in Jesus: 
24 and that you put on the new man which was created according to God, in true righteousness and holiness.
25 lying – truth
26  Anger
28 stealling—giving
29 corrupt communication--edification
30 And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. 31 Let all bitterness, wrath, anger, clamor, and evil speaking be put away from you, with all malice. 32 And be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, just as God in Christ forgave you.
5. 1 Therefore be imitators of God as dear children. 2 And walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and given Himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling aroma.
A. Context:
1) Before
not walking as the Gentiles walk
you have heard...been taught by Him
put on the new man
grieve not the Spirit who seals
2) After
walk in love like Christ
B. Key Ideas:
bitterness  πικρα   Strong's G4088 - pikria - (lit.) bitter gall (metaph.) bitterness, bitter hatred.
wrath  2372 θυμός [thumos /thoo·mos/]   outbursts of anger
ylt, kjv, nasb, nkjv, esv—wrath;
niv, ylt—rage;  wet—violent outbreaks of wrath
anger    3709 ὀργή [orge /or·gay/] any "natural impulse, or desire, or disposition," came to signify "anger," as the strongest of all passions.
clamour  2906 κραυγή [krauge /krow·gay/]   
niv, wet—brawling
evil speaking  988 βλασφημία [blasphemia /blas·fay·me·ah/]   blasphemy
ylt, kjv, nkjv—evil speaking;
nasb, esv, niv, wet, nlt—slander
malice  2549 κακία [kakia /kak·ee·ah/]    
1. kindχρηστς  Strong's G5543 - chrēstos - useful, pleasant
-When our kids are bickering we tell them to be … nice.
-It is interesting that the Greek word kind looks a lot like the Greek Christ.
2. (adj) tenderheartedεσπλαγχνος  Strong's G2155 - eusplagchnos  (lit.) having strong bowels; (fig.) compassionate, tender hearted  
1 Peter 3.8 having compassion for one another; love as brothers
Strong enough to feel the joys and hurts of others.
3. (v) forgivingχαρζομαι   Strong's G5483 - charizomai (root word is grace) - a) to show one's self gracious, kind, benevolent  b) to grant forgiveness, to pardon  
C. Motivation:
for Christ’s sake...
·        Cling to Christ. (not a moral system or culture)
·        Act like you have learned about Christ.  We act this way for Him and to be like Him.
D. Application:
·        Focus on Christ, not “the storm.” We forget so easily.
·        We force out the old man by intentionally putting on and wearing the new.
·        Be nice.  Then, have compassionate toward.  Don’t hold it against them.
TE:  The change our attitude will naturally move us from a self-focus toward an outward look.
3) Do Gooders who have an outward look.
Galatians 6:8-13 esp.11
8 For he who sows to his flesh will of the flesh reap corruption, but he who sows to the Spirit will of the Spirit reap everlasting life. 9 And let us not grow weary while doing good, for in due season we shall reap if we do not lose heart. 10 Therefore, as we have opportunity, let us do good to all, especially to those who are of the household of faith.
13 For not even those who are circumcised keep the law, but they desire to have you circumcised that they may boast in your flesh.
A. Context:
1) Before
3.2  restoring a fallen brother
3.3 humility
3.8-9 sowing and reaping
2) After
warning of those
B. Key Ideas:
1. do 2038 ἐργάζομαι [ergazomai /er·gad·zom·ahee/]  has the same meaning as the English “work
good  18 ἀγαθός [agathos /ag·ath·os/]  expresses the significance or excellence of a thing or person.
2. to all 
To someone. It is intentional. 
Generous and liberal.  To all kinds of people.
3. especially to the household of faith
-The purpose of doing good is not primarily evangelism.  Evangelism is often a byproduct.
-Our priority is to take care believers first, and then also to everybody else.
C. Application:
·        This is more than a random act of kindness on a whim.  This is intentional, generous, frequent work. 
·        Just as God hates a heart that devises evil, He loves a heart that devises good.
Proverbs 6
16 These six things the Lord hates, Yes, seven are an abomination to Him:
17 A proud look,
A lying tongue,
Hands that shed innocent blood,
18 A heart that devises wicked plans,
Feet that are swift in running to evil,
19 A false witness who speaks lies,
And one who sows discord among brethren.
D. Motivation:
·        to fulfill the law of Christ  v.2
The legalist is not interested in bearing burdens. Instead, he adds to the burdens of others (Acts 15:10). This was one of the sins of the Pharisees in Jesus’ day: “For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men’s shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers” (Matt. 23:4).     —-Wiersbe, Warren W.: The Bible Exposition Commentary. Wheaton, Ill. : Victor Books, 1996, c1989, S. Ga 6:1
·        to reap in due season
since God so loved us, we should…
·        to follow Christ’s examplewho went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil,” Peter to Cornelius and others in Acts 10.38
TE:  As we follow Christ doing good, we should follow the church leaders that He has put into our lives.

4) Followers who have a submissive spirit.
Hebrews 13.5-9  esp. v.7
5 Let your conduct be without covetousness; be content with such things as you have. For He Himself has said, "I will never leave you nor forsake you." 6 So we may boldly say: "The Lord is my helper; I will not fear. What can man do to me?" 7 Remember those who rule over you, who have spoken the word of God to you, whose faith follow, considering the outcome of their conduct.
8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever. 9 Do not be carried about with various and strange doctrines. For it is good that the heart be established by grace, not with foods which have not profited those who have been occupied with them.
A1. Context: of verse 7
1) Before
13.5 covetousness condemned “I will never leave you…”
2) After
13.9 warning about following “various and strange doctrines”.

Hebrews 13.16-18 esp. v.17
16 But do not forget to do good and to share, for with such sacrifices God is well pleased. 17 Obey those who rule over you, and be submissive, for they watch out for your souls, as those who must give account. Let them do so with joy and not with grief, for that would be unprofitable for you. 18 Pray for us; for we are confident that we have a good conscience, in all things desiring to live honorably.
A2. Context: of verse 17
1) Before
13.16  doing good and sharing as sacrifices to God
2) After
13.18  Paul’s good conscience as a leader.
B. Key Ideas:
1. v. 7  remember 3421 μνημονεύω [mnemoneuo /mnay·mon·yoo·o/]  - signifies "to call to mind, remember;" it is used absolutely in Mark_8:18; everywhere else it has an object —Vine’s
ylt—be mindful; wet—be constantly remembering
v. 7 consider 333 ἀναθεωρέω, διϊστορέω [anathaoreo /an·ath·eh·o·reh·o/]  - to look at attentively, to consider well, to observe accurately
wet—closely observe; nlt—think of
2. v. 7 follow 3628 μιμέομαι (mimeomai): imitate (mimic)
kjv, nkjv, nlt—follow; ylt, nasb, esv, niv, wet—imitate
v. 17 obey 3982 πείθομαι (πείθω [peitho /pi·tho/])  to be a disciple or follower of someone  —not the same as in Eph. 6.1  “Children”
v. 17 submissive 5226 ὑπείκω [hupeiko /hoop·i·ko/]  (lit.) to resist no longer, but to give way, yield (of combatants)  (metaph.) to yield to authority and admonition, to submit  —not the same as Eph 5.22 “wives”
C. Motivation:
·        the outcome of their conduct
·        so they will give account with joy
D. Application:
·        Leaders provide us examples.
·        They give direction as the teach and apply God’s Word.
·        They provide encouragement and accountability.
TE:  As we are motivated to do good and
follow Christ and His under shepherds in this work,
we should desire to support it with our finances, time, and other assets.
5) Givers who have a generous joy.
1 Corinthians 16.1-3  (esp. 2)
1 Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given orders to the churches of Galatia, so you must do also: 2 On the first day of the week let each one of you lay something aside, storing up as he may prosper, that there be no collections when I come. 3 And when I come, whomever you approve by your letters I will send to bear your gift to Jerusalem.
A1. Context:
1) Before
One of the most important ministries Paul had during his third journey was the gathering of a special “relief offering” for the poor believers in Jerusalem.
2) After
Arrangements for delivery of the gift.
2 Corinthians 9.7
5 Therefore I thought it necessary to exhort the brethren to go to you ahead of time, and prepare your generous gift beforehand, which you had previously promised, that it may be ready as a matter of generosity and not as a grudging obligation. 6 But this I say: He who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and he who sows bountifully will also reap bountifully. 7 So let each one give as he purposes in his heart, not grudgingly or of necessity; for God loves a cheerful giver. 8 And God is able to make all grace abound toward you, that you, always having all sufficiency in all things, may have an abundance for every good work. 9 As it is written: "He has dispersed abroad, He has given to the poor; His righteousness endures forever."
A2. Context:
1) Before
prepare the gift beforehand
sowing and reaping
2) After
having an abundance for every good work
fruits of righteousness
Psalm 112
1 ...the man who fears the Lord,
9 He has dispersed abroad,
He has given to the poor;
His righteousness endures forever;
His horn will be exalted with honor.
B. Key Ideas:
·        “Giving is an act of worship. Each member was to come to the Lord’s Day gathering prepared to give his share for that week.”
·        “Giving should be systematic.  ...each believer was to set aside his offering at home and then bring it to the assembly on the first day.”
·        “Giving was personal and individual.
·        —Paul expected each member to share in the offering, the rich and poor alike.”
·        —Each member purposed in his heart what to give.
·        “Giving is to be proportionate.  As God hath prospered him” (1 Cor. 16:2) suggests that believers who have more should give more.”
Wiersbe, Warren W.: The Bible Exposition Commentary. Wheaton, Ill. : Victor Books, 1996, c1989, S. 1 Co 16:1
·        Giving is to be joyful.  They were not motivated by guilt or a painful obligation, but generous heart that was glad to be able to help.
C. Motivation:
·        The Christian life is about giving not getting.
·        Giving brings joy and increases our connection to the Lord’s work.
D. Application:
“When we think like owners, it’s a red flag.  We should be thinking like stewards or investment managers who are preparing for an evaluation. “
—Randy Alcorn in The Treasure Principle
Personal Application for the Unsaved:  Review salvation and appeal
Personal Application for the Saved:
We should renew our commitment to the five commitments of our church covenant.  To be…
a heavenly home.
a tender heart.
3. DO GOODERS with
an outward look.
a submissive spirit.
5. GIVERS with
a generous joy.
TE:  Closing prayer.
Consecrate us now to Thy service, Lord,
By the power of grace divine;
Let our souls look up with a steadfast hope,
And our will be lost in Thine.
20 Now may the God of peace
who brought up our Lord Jesus from the dead,
that great Shepherd of the sheep,
through the blood of the everlasting covenant,
21 make you complete in every good work
to do His will,
working in you what is well pleasing in His sight,
through Jesus Christ,
to whom be glory forever and ever.

Sunday, December 19, 2010

“Worship: Our Obedient, Living Sacrifice”

In Matthew 4:9 we see the first time that Jesus explicitly talked about worship.  Satan brought Jesus to the top of a mountain and told Jesus that He could have all the kingdoms of the world if He would fall down and worship him.  Jesus responded with a paraphrase of Deuteronomy 6:13 and said, “You shall worship the Lord your God…”  When we look at the wording in Deuteronomy, it says, “You shall fear the Lord your God and serve Him…” 

Jesus knew that Satan wanted more than to just see him in a certain physical posture.  Satan wanted to be feared and served. The “fear of the Lord” is a daily attitude that should motivate and direct our service to Him. That sacrifice of service is central to worship.

Romans 12:1-2 emphasizes this point.  Paul calls to mind the great mercies of God that he described in the first eleven chapters of Romans and begs us by those mercies to present our bodies to God. The word for present is one that would be used of the priest as he brought an offering. Paul admonishes us to present or offer our bodies.  This is not some kind of abstract concept or feeling.  Our physical bodies should be used in God’s service because of the mercy He showed us by purchasing us (1 Cor. 6.19-20). 

Verse one also describes it as a spiritual or reasoned worship.  It is not just giving God our flesh and blood.  It is devoting all we do with our bodies to Him. This is our reasoned, spiritual act of worship or service to Him.  The priests served God by the things they did in the temple and we worship the Lord by doing everything as an act of worship and service to Him.  When we worship God this way our lives are transfigured from being conformed to the thinking and mores of this age to being in line with the good and acceptable and perfect will of God. 

In the last half of Colossians three Paul illustrates how each relationship in a believer’s life is transformed and defined by our relationship with the Lord.  We do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ giving thanks to Him. We worship Him through our daily sacrifice of service.

The church marquee said “God doesn’t want visitation rights.  He wants full custody.”  That captures the idea of worship.  Worship is not just 10% of our income, twenty minutes each morning, one day a week, or even a couple weeks on a mission’s trip each year.  God deserves and desires for us to worship Him with all our assets and all our actions every day each week of every year He gives us.

Proverbs 21.27 says that, “The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination.” If we live like the world all week and try to present a pious looking praise on Sunday, God finds it detestable.  Our Sunday praise is a delight when it confirms our daily offering of service to God.  When we fear and serve the Lord by the daily presenting of our body as an obedient, living sacrifice, we have mastered the central part of worship. 

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Where's my KJV?

I have always thought of thou and thee as just being archaic and only of aesthetic value.  I was talking to a smart friend of mine and lamenting the lack of a 2nd person singular pronoun in English.  He who pointed out that that was the function of “thou” and “thee” before they became obsolete.  I found more info at .
Thanks, Justin.  Now, where did I put that KJV?

101215 Malachi

Malachi 1
1.4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14  the Lord of Hosts...  This title appears a total of 21 x's in this short book.  That is probably significant. 
1.6  How have we...  Be careful what you ask ...especially if you don't really want to know.
1.9  with such a gift in your hand, will He...  Am I giving my best to God?
Malachi 2
2.7  This is a good verse for the preacher and the pew today.
2.9  but show partiality in your instruction...  This is a good caution against teaching our own thing as the expense of the purity of the covenant.
2.10  Have we not all one Father?  Ouch The application here is not what I first expected.  We are also being faithless to one another when we profane the covenant.  Food for thought.
Malachi 3
3.2  fuller's soap...  I just like the idea of the Lord Jesus being like soap.  He cleans us up.
3.5  oppress the hired worker... thrust aside the sojourner...  God is for the little guy.
3.6  I just love this verse.
Malachi 4
4.2  the sun of righteousness shall rise with healing in its wings...  I had always thought of this as a title for Christ like in "Hark the Herald Angels Sing", but it doesn't seem clear as I am reading it this time.
4.5 the great and awesome day of the Lord...

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

101208 Micah

Micah 2
2.4  In that day...  It is good to remember that there will be a  "that day".
Micah 3
3. 5  a good description of how fickled we can be toward God.
3.8  with justice and might...  We don't usually think about justice as result of the Spirit's filling.
3.11 for a bribe, for a price,  for money....  What motivates us.  Something to think about in our materialistic society.
Micah 4
4.3  neither shall they learn war anymore...  That is close to inconceivable in our world today.
Micah 5
5.2  a verse the chief priests learned in their version of Awana.
5.3-6   talking about Christ.
Micah 6
6.8  walk humbly...  Jesus seems to paraphrase this a faith in a rebuke to the pharisees in Matthew 23.23
6,16   not a favorite verse of the archeologist crowd  :o).

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

101131 Micah 1

Micah 1
The poetic and descriptive word play in this list of cities adds some poignant spice to this pronouncement.  Keil and Delitzch seem to do a good play by play and commentary on the passage.
1) 1.10  Beth-le-aphrah
Beth-le-aphrath: בֵּית לְעַפְרָה is probably the Ophrah of Benjamin (עָפְרָה, Jos_18:23), which was situated, according to Eusebius, not far from Bethel (see comm. on Josh. l.c.). It is pointed with pathach here for the sake of the paronomasia with עָפָר. The chethib הִתְפַּלַּשְׁתִּי is the correct reading, the keri הִתְפַּלָּשִׁי being merely an emendation springing out of a misunderstanding of the true meaning. הִתְפַּלֵּשׁ does not mean to revolve, but to bestrew one's self. Bestrewing with dust or ashes was a sign of deep mourning (Jer_6:26; 2Sa_13:19). The prophet speaks in the name of the people of what the people will do.
2) 1.11  Shaphir
The inhabitants of Shafir are to go stripped into captivity. עָבַר, to pass by, here in the sense of moving forwards. The plural לָכֶם is to be accounted for from the fact that yōshebheth is the population. Shâphı̄r, i.e., beautiful city, is not the same as the Shâmı̄r in Jos_15:48, for this was situated in the south-west of the mountains of Judah; nor the same as the Shâmı̄r in the mountains of Ephraim (Jdg_10:1), which did not belong to the kingdom of Judah; but is a place to the north of Jerusalem, of which nothing further is known. The statement in the Onomast. s.v. Σαφείρ ἐν γῆ ὀρεινῆ between Eleutheropolis and Askalon - is probably intended to apply to the Shâmı̄r of Joshua; but this is evidently erroneous, as the country between Eleutheropolis and Askalon did not belong to the mountains of Judah, but to the Shephelah. עֶרְיָה־בֹשֶׁת, a combination like עַנְוָה־צֶדֶק in Psa_45:5, equivalent to stripping which is shame, shame-nakedness = ignominious stripping. עֶרְיָה is an accusative defining the manner in which they would go out. The next two clauses are difficult to explain. צַאֲנָן, a play upon words with יָֽצְאָה, is traceable to this verb, so far as its meaning is concerned. The primary meaning of the name is uncertain; the more modern commentators combine it with צֹאן, in the sense of rich in flocks.
3) 1.11 Zaanan...
The situation of Zaanan is quite unknown. The supposed identity with Zenân see at Jos_15:37) must be given up, as Zenân was in the plain, and Zaanan was most probably to the north of Jerusalem. The meaning of the clause can hardly be any other than this, that the population of Zaanan had not gone out of their city to this war from fear of the enemy, but, on the contrary, had fallen back behind their walls (Ros., Casp., Hitzig). בֵּית הָאֵצֶל is most likely the same as אָצַל in Zec_14:5, a place in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, to the east of the Mount of Olives, as Beth is frequently omitted in the names of places (see Ges. Thes. p. 193). Etsel signifies side, and as an adverb or preposition, “by the side of.” This meaning comes into consideration there.
4) 1.11 Beth-ezel...

The thought of the words mispad bēth, etc., might be: “The lamentation of Beth-Haezel will take away its standing (the standing by the side of it, 'etslō) from you (Judaeans), i.e., will not allow you to tarry there as fugitives (cf. Jer_48:45). The distress into which the enemy staying there has plunged Beth-Haezel, will make it impossible for you to stop there” (Hitzig, Caspari). But the next clause, which is connected by כִּי, does not suit this explanation (Mic_1:12). The only way in which this clause can be made to follow suitably as an explanation is by taking the words thus: “The lamentation of Beth-Haezel will take its standing (the stopping of the calamity or judgment) from you, i.e., stop near it, as we should expect from its name; for (Mic_1:12)

5) 1.11 Maroth...
Maroth, which stands further off, will feel pain,” etc. With this view, which Caspari also suggests, Hengstenberg (on Zec_14:5) agrees in the main, except that he refers the suffix in עֶמְדָּתוֹ to מִסְפָּד, and renders the words thus: “The lamentation of Beth-Haezel will take its stopping away from you, i.e., the calamity will not stop at Beth-Haezel (at the near house), i.e., stop near it, as we should expect from its name; for (Mic_1:12) Maroth, which stands further off, will feel pain,” etc. With this view, which Caspari also suggests, Hengstenberg (on Zec_14:5) agrees in the main, except that he refers the suffix in עֶמְדָתוֹ to מִסְפָּד, and renders the words thus: “The lamentation of Beth-Haezel will take its stopping away from you, i.e., will not allow you the stopping of the lamentation.” Grammatically considered, this connection is the more natural one; but there is this objection, that it cannot be shown that עָמַד is used in the sense of the stopping or ceasing of a lamentation, whereas the supposition that the suffix refers to the calamity simply by constructio ad sensum has all the less difficulty, inasmuch as the calamity has already been hinted at in the verb נָגַע in Mic_1:9, and in Mic_1:10 also it forms the object to be supplied in thought. Maroth (lit., something bitter, bitternesses) is quite unknown; it is simply evident, from the explanatory clause כִּי יָרַד וגו, that it was situated in the immediate neighbourhood of Jerusalem. The inhabitants of Maroth writhe (châlâh, from chūl, to writhe with pain, like a woman in child-birth), because they are also smitten with the calamity, when it comes down to the gate of Jerusalem. לְטוֹב, “on account of the good,” which they have lost, or are about to lose.
6) 1.13 Lachish...
 The inhabitants of Lachish, a fortified city in the Shephelah, to the west of Eleutheropolis, preserved in the ruins of Um Lakis (see at Jos_10:3), are to harness the horses to the chariot (rekhesh, a runner; see at 1Ki_5:8 : the word is used as ringing with lâkhı̄sh), namely, to flee as rapidly as possible before the advancing foe. רָתַם, ἁπ. λεγ. “to bind ... the horse to the chariot,” answering to the Latin currum jungere equis. Upon this city will the judgment fall with especial severity, because it has grievously sinned. It was the beginning of sin to the daughter of Zion, i.e., to the population of Jerusalem; it was the first to grant admission to the iniquities of Israel, i.e., to the idolatry of the image-worship of the ten tribes (for פִּשְׁעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, see Mic_1:5 and Amo_3:14), which penetrated even to the capital. Nothing more is known of this, as the historical books contain no account of it. For this reason, namely, because the sin of Israel found admission into Jerusalem, she (the daughter Zion) will be obliged to renounce Moresheth-gath. This is the thought of Mic_1:14, the drapery of which rests upon the resemblance in sound between Moresheth and me'orâsâh, the betrothed (Deu_22:23). Shillūchı̄m, dismissal, denotes anything belonging to a man, which he dismisses or gives up for a time, or for ever. It is applied in Exo_18:2 to the sending away of wife and children to the father-in-law for a time; and in 1Ki_9:16 to a dowry, or the present which a father gives to his daughter when she is married and leaves his house. The meaning “divorce,” i.e., sēpher kerı̄thuth (Deu_24:1, Deu_24:3), has been arbitrarily forced upon the word. The meaning is not to be determined from shillēăch in Jer_3:8, as Hitzig supposes, but from 1Ki_9:16, where the same expression occurs, except that it is construed with ל, which makes no material difference. For נָתַן אַל signifies to give to a person, either to lay upon him or to hand to him; נָתַן לְ, to give to him. The object given by Zion to Moresheth as a parting present is not mentioned, but it is really the city itself; for the meaning is simply this: Zion will be obliged to relinquish all further claim to Moresheth, to give it up to the enemy.

7) 1.14  Morsheth-gath...
Mōresheth is not an appellative, as the old translators suppose, but the proper name of Micah's home; and Gath is a more precise definition of its situation - “by Gath,” viz., the well-known Philistian capital, analogous to Bethlehem-Judah in Jdg_17:7-9; Jdg_19:1, or Abel-maim (Abel by the water) in 2Ch_16:4. According to Jerome (comm. in Mich. Prol.), Morasthi, qui usque hodie juxta Eleutheropolin, urbem Palaestinae, haud grandis est viculus (cf. Robinson, Pal. ii. p. 423). The context does not admit of our taking the word in an appellative sense, “possession of Gath,” since the prophet does not mean to say that Judah will have to give up to the enemy a place belonging to Gath, but rather that it will have to give up the cities of its own possession. For, as Maurer correctly observes, “when the enemy is at the gate, men think of defending the kingdom, not of enlarging it.” But if the addition of the term Gath is not merely intended to define the situation of Moresheth with greater minuteness, or to distinguish it from other places of the same name, and if the play upon words in Moresheth was intended to point to a closer relation to Gath, the thought expressed could only be, that the place situated in the neighbourhood of Gath had frequently been taken by the Philistines, or claimed as their property, and not that they were in actual possession of Gath at this time.
The play upon words in the second clause of the verse also points to the loss of places in Judaea: “the houses of Achzib will become Achzab to the kings of Israel.” אַכְזָב, a lie, for נַחַל אַכְזָב, is a stream which dries up in the hot season, and deceives the expectation of the traveller that he shall find water (Jer_15:18; cf. Job_6:15.).
8) 1.14  Achzib...
Achzib, a city in the plain of Judah, whose name has been preserved in the ruins of Kussabeh, to the south-west of Beit-Jibrin (see at Jos_15:44). The houses of Achzib are mentioned, because they are, properly speaking, to be compared to the contents of the river's bed, whereas the ground on which they stood, with the wall that surrounded them, answered to the river's bed itself (Hitzig), so that the words do not denote the loss or destruction of the houses so much as the loss of the city itself. The “kings of Israel” are not the kings of Samaria and Judah, for Achzib belonged to the kingdom of Judah alone, but the kings of Judah who followed one another (cf. Jer_19:13); so that the plural is to be understood as relating to the monarchy of Israel (Judah).
9) 1.15  Mareshah...
Mareshah will also pass into other hands. This is affirmed in the words, “I will bring the heir to thee again” (אָבִי for אָבִיא, as in 1Ki_21:29). The first heir of Mareshah was the Israelites, who received the city, which had been previously occupied by the Canaanites, for their possession on the conquest of the land. The second heir will be the enemy, into whose possession the land is now to pass. Mareshah, also in the lowland of Judah, has been preserved, so far as the name is concerned, in the ruins of Marash (see at Jos_15:44, and Tobler, Dritte Wanderung, pp. 129, 142-3).
10) 1.15  Adullam...
To the north of this was Adullam (see at Jos_12:15), which has not yet been discovered, but which Tobler (p. 151) erroneously seeks for in Bêt Dûla. Micah mentions it simply on account of the cave there (1Sa_22:1), as a place of refuge, to which the great and glorious of Israel would flee (“the glory of Israel,” as in Isa_5:13). .