Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Lesson 11 - “The Elder and False Teachers” - Titus 1:1-16

Lesson 11 - “The Elder and False Teachers” - Titus 1:1-16
ID: Inductive Questions (Asking the text questions like who, what, where, when, why, & how?”)
CR: Cross References (Comparing Scripture to Scripture, understanding the vague by the clear.)
WS: Word Study (Understanding definition, theological meaning, and usages in other passages.)
The WORD: What does the Bible say?
Context: Read all three chapters in this book if you have time.  Pay attention to the purpose and theme of the book  (1.5; 3:14).  Read Titus 1 again in a more literal or more dynamic translation than you usually use.
1.     ID:  (1:1-4)  Compare and contrast the salutations of the three “Pastoral Epistles” (1 & 2 Timothy and Titus). How did Paul describe himself and about the recipient of each letter?
2.     WS: (1:1-3) What are the key words in this salutation?
3.      ID:  (1:1-4) What do we learn about our salvation and the character of God in Titus 1.1-4?
4.     ID/CR:  (1:6-9)  How do these verses describe a “blameless” man?  Do you notice any groupings or progression in this list?  How does it compare with the description Paul gave in 1 Timothy 3:1-7?
5.     ID:  (1:10-16) How do these verses describe “those who contradict (oppose)?”
6.     ID:  (1:13-14) What purpose is given for rebuking the false teachers? 
7.     ID: (1:9-16) What insights do the surrounding verses give to the meaning of verse fifteen?
The WALK: What should I do?
1.     Paul describes himself as a bondservant and an Apostle.  How would you describe yourself?
2.     Which characteristics of an elder are the biggest challenge for you.  Which ones do the elders in your church best exemplify?
3.     The expression “sound (hygiainō) doctrine” in verse nine might be paraphrased “healthy doctrine.”  What makes doctrine (or faith v. 13) healthy? 
4.     CSBI: Since we no longer possess the original documents of the Scriptures, how confident can we be with the copies we do possess?  What are the limitations of translations?  What version did Jesus use when he was on earth? 
Going Beyond: What areas of theology are touched on in this passage?
q  The Bible (Bibliology)    q  God (Theology Proper)    q  The Father (Paterology)    q  The Lord Jesus Christ (Christology)
q  The Holy Spirit (Pneumatology)    q  Man (Anthropology)    q  Salvation (Soteriology)    q  The Church (Ecclesiology)  
q  Angels & Satan (Angelology)    q  Future Things (eschatology)

Articles IX through XII deal with the matter of greatest present concern: inerrancy.  They seek to define terms and answer the chief questions that have been raised:  If the Bible has come to us through human authors, which the earlier articles acknowledge, and if it is natural for human beings to err, which all confess, isn’t the Bible necessarily errant?  Doesn’t it cease to be authentically human if it does not have errors?  Again, if inerrancy applies properly only to the original manuscript, called autographs, and if we do not possess these, as we do not, isn’t the argument for inerrancy meaningless?  Or doesn’t it stand only by appealing to documents that do not exist and whose inerrant state cannot be verified?  Why can’t inerrancy be applied to those parts of the Bible that deal with salvation and not to those parts that deal with history, science and other “unimportant” and “non-essential” matters?

We affirm that inspiration, strictly speaking, applies only to the autographic text of Scripture, which in the providence of God can be ascertained from available manuscripts with great accuracy.
We further affirm that copies and translations of Scripture are the Word of God to the extent that they faithfully represent the original.
We deny that any essential element of the Christian faith is affected by the absence of the autographs.
We further deny that this absence renders the assertion of biblical inerrancy invalid or irrelevant.
Article X deals directly with the perennial issue of the relationship of the text of Scripture that we presently have to the original documents which have not been preserved except through the means of copies.  In the first instance, inspiration applies strictly to the original autographs of Scripture, to the original works of the inspired authors.  What this does indicate is that the infallible control of God in the production of the original Scripture has not been miraculously perpetuated through the ages in the copying and translating process.  It is plainly apparent that there are some minute variations between the manuscript copies that we possess and that the translating process will inject additional variants for those who read the Scripture in a language other than Hebrew or Greek. So the framers of the document are not arguing for a perpetually inspired transmission of the text.
Since we do not have the original manuscripts, some have urged that an appeal to the lost originals renders the whole case for the inspiration of the Scripture irrelevant.  To reason in this manner is to denigrate the very serious work that has been done in the field of textual criticism.  Textual criticism is the science which seeks to reconstruct an original text by a careful analysis and evaluation of the manuscripts we presently possess.  This task has to be accomplished with respect to all documents from antiquity that have reached us through manuscript copies.  The Old and New Testament Scriptures are probably the texts which have reached us with the most extensive and reliable attestation.  For more than ninety-nine percent of the cases the original text can be reconstructed to a practical certainty.  Even in the few cases where some perplexity remains, this does not impinge on the meaning of Scripture to the point of clouding a tenet of the faith or a mandate of life.  Thus, in the Bible as we have it (and as it is conveyed to us through faithful translations) we do have for practical purposes the very word of God, inasmuch as the manuscripts do convey to us the complete vital truth of the originals.
The further affirmation of Article X is that copies and translations of Scripture are the Word of God to the extent that they faithfully represent the original.  Though we do not actually possess the originals, we have such well reconstructed translations and copies that to the extent to which they do correspond to the original documents they may be said to be the Word of God.  But because of the evident presence of copy errors and errors of translation the distinction must be made between the original work of inspiration in the autographs and the human labor of translating and copying those autographs.
The denial has in view the important point that in those minuscule segments of existing manuscripts where textual criticism has not been able to ascertain with absolute certainty what the original reading was, no essential article of the Christian faith is affected.
To limit inerrancy or inspiration to the original manuscripts does not make the whole contention irrelevant.  It does make a difference.  If the original text were errant, the church would have the option of rejecting the teachings of that errant text.  If the original text is inerrant (and the science of textual criticism must be depended upon to reconstruct that inerrant text), we have no legitimate basis for disobeying a mandate of Scripture where the text is not in doubt.  For example, if two theologians agreed that the original text were inerrant and if both agreed as to what the present copy taught and further agreed that the present copy was an accurate representation of the original, then it would follow irresistibly that the two men would be under divine obligation to obey that text.  If, on the other hand, we asserted that the original manuscripts were possibly errant and the two theologians then agreed as to what the Bible taught and also agreed that the present translation or copy faithfully represented the original, neither would be under moral obligation to submit to the teachings of that possibly errant original. Therein lies the important issue of the relevancy of the character of the original manuscript.

Leader Notes for…
Lesson 11  “The Elder and False Teachers” Titus 1:1-16

2.  The key words that I was thinking about are faith, truth, and hope, but the men will probably have other ideas too.  I think the phrases that each of these words appear in (according to the faith of God's elect - the acknowledgment of the truth which accords with godliness - in hope of eternal life which God, who cannot lie, promised before time began, but has in due time) are rich areas for meditation.
5. Make sure you  give at least some attention to the positive purpose of helping those who contradict to be sound in their faith.
7. This verse contains an interesting proverb.  It will be a good opportunity to let the surrounding verses inform the interpretation and application, so compare explanations to the truths in the surrounding verses.  I have comments from commentaries on this verse below.

2. Part of this question gives the men an opportunity to be thankful for the areas where their leaders set good examples.  Don’t let it turn into a gripe session.

The article,  What version did Jesus use when he was on earth?”,  by John Barnett is very helpful.  We want the men to leave with a realistic idea of what to expect and not expect from their English translation and a confidence that they have a profitable rendering of the original.  If the discussion includes comments about specific versions, try to avoid any version bashing.

Notes on Titus by Dr. Thomas L. Constable
These “commandments of men” (v. 14) involved abstaining from certain foods (asceticism; cf. 1 Tim. 4:1-4; Col. 2:20-22). Paul reminded his readers that to the pure in heart all things, including foods, are pure (clean; cf. Matt. 15:11; Mark 7:15, 20; Luke 11:39-41). However the impure in heart spread impurity wherever they go through their words and deeds (cf. Hag. 2:13-14).
Kenneth S. Wuest, Wuest’s Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: For the English Reader (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997), Tt 1:13–15.
(1:15, 16) The words, “Unto the pure all things are pure,” are to be understood in their context, which latter speaks of arbitrary ascetic prohibitions. Expositors says: “This is best understood as a maxim of the Judaic Gnostics, based on a perversion of Luke 11:41” where our Lord, speaking of the Pharisees and their man-made ceremonial washings says, “All things are clean to you.” The purity spoken of in our Titus reference speaks, not of purity which is the absence and opposite of immorality, etc., but of the ceremonial purity of man-made regulations. Our Lord tells the Jewish leaders that there is nothing wrong in eating with ceremoniously unwashen hands. That is, the person who does not subscribe to the Pharasaical regulations is not impure or defiled, nor is the food he eats affected in that way. We must be careful in explaining our Titus passage to make clear that the purity here spoken of is not moral, but ceremonial purity, lest we by our interpretation open the flood gates to license. Expositors says: “Paul accepts the statement as a truth, but not in the intention of the speaker.” Commenting on the rest of the verse, the same authority says, referring to those who are defiled; “their moral obliquity is more characteristic of them than their intellectual perversion. The satisfaction of natural bodily desires (for it is these that are in question) is, when lawful, a pure thing, not merely innocent, in the case of the pure; it is an impure thing, even when lawful, in the case of ‘them that are defiled.’ And for this reason: their intellectual apprehension of these things is perverted by defiling associations; ‘the light that is in them is darkness,’ and their conscience has, from a similar cause, lost its sense of discrimination between what is innocent and what is criminal. That any action with which they themselves are familiar could be pure, is inconceivable.” “Profess” is homologeomai (ὁμολογεομαι), “to agree” with someone as to some thing, thus, “to confess belief” in it. “Reprobate” is adokimos (ἀδοκιμος), “put to the test for the purpose of being approved, but failing to meet the requirements, being disapproved.”
Translation. All things are pure to those who are pure. But to those who are defiled and unbelieving, not even one thing is pure. But even their mind and conscience are defiled. God, they confess that they know, but in their works they deny, being abominable and disobedient and with reference to every good work, disapproved.
Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, vol. 2 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1996), 263.
Titus 1:15 is one of those verses that some ignorant people try to use to defend their ungodly practices. “To the pure, all things are pure” is used to excuse all sorts of sin. I recall warning a teenager about the kind of literature he was reading, and his defense was, “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Your heart must be filthy if you see sin in what I’m reading. After all, ‘To the pure, all things are pure.’ ”
To begin with, Paul was refuting the false teaching of these legalists with reference to foods. They were teaching that Jewish dietary laws still applied to Christian believers (see 1 Tim. 4:3–5). If you ate forbidden food, you defiled yourself; but if you refused that food, you became holier.
“It is just the opposite,” Paul argued. “These teachers have defiled minds and consciences. Therefore, when they look at these innocent foods, they see sin, because sin has defiled their vision. But those of us who have pure minds and consciences know that all foods are clean. It is not the foods which are defiling the teachers; it is the teachers who are defiling the foods!”
But this principle must not be applied to things that we know are evil. The difference, for example, between great art and pornography is more than “in the eye of the beholder.” A great artist does not exploit the human body for base gain. For a believer to indulge in sinful, erotic experiences and claim that they were pure because his heart was pure, is to use the Word of God to excuse sin. The application Paul made was to food, and we must be careful to keep it there.


Monday, November 17, 2014

Proverbs 22.1-16 Teaching Notes

11. Wealth and Moral Instruction (22.1-16)
The final unit can be analyzed as having two halves: 

the Lord's sovereignty over wealth (vv.1-9) ... 
and the need for moral instruction in connection with wealth (vv.10-16).
The refrain "gives" and "poor" (dal) occurs in the concluding verse of each half (vv. 9, 16). --Bruce Waltke in NICOT 
(a) The Lord's Sovereignty and Wealth (22.2-9)
The subunit consists of
an introduction asserting the priority of a good name to wealth (v. 1),
first (vv. 2-4), combining the Lord's sovereignty with human accountability (vv.3-4)
second (vv. 5-6), education, and
third (vv. 7-9) the Lords retribution.
  --Bruce Waltke in NICOT  

A good name                          Loving favor
is to be chosen                       [is to be chosen]
rather than great riches,      rather than silver and gold. 
name...  Heb “a name.” The idea of the name being “good” is implied; it has the connotation here of a reputation (cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).  --NET Bible translation notes
A good name represents a person's good character and his memory (10:7; 18:10; 21:24).  --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
great riches... If one chooses riches avobe all else, the actions that follow will break relationships of trust and tarnish one's name.  --Paul Koptak in NIVAC
loving favor... tn Heb “favor of goodness.” This is a somewhat difficult expression. Some English versions render the phrase “favor is better than silver or gold” (so NASB, NRSV) making it parallel to the first colon. But if “good” is retained as an attributive modifier, then it would mean one was well thought of, or one had engaging qualities (cf. ASV “loving favor; NLT “high esteem”). This fits with the idea of the reputation in the first colon, for a good name would bring with it the favor of others.  --NET Bible translation notes
gold... Wealth can be obtained apart from virtue, (see 11:16, 28), but not a good name.
--Bruce Waltke in NICOT
Our Lord carries this teaching a step further in Luke 10:20, to show that a still higher  level , not the power we wield, but the love in which we are held, is our proper joy. --Derek Kidner TOTC

The rich and the poor have this in common, 
The Lord is the maker of them all.  

poor...  Strong's H7326 - ruwsh:  “the poor” — Any person lacking sufficient income to attain necessities.  "This root implies destitution."  --TWOT
have this in common... 
The form of the verb is the Niphal perfect of פָּגַשׁ (pagash); it means “to meet together [or, each other]” (cf. KJV, ASV). The point is that rich and poor live side by side in this life, but they are both part of God’s creation (cf. NAB, NASB “have a common bond”). Some commentators have taken this to mean that they should live together because they are part of God’s creation; but the verb form will not sustain that meaning.   --NET Bible translation notes
maker...  of the people and not of their poverty or wealth.
> The rich should remember that his treatment of the poor is equated with his treatment of their Maker (17:5), and the poor should learn not to despise, envy, or revolt against the rich (3:13), or sycophantically to ingratiate himself with him or compromise his conscience to get his smile.  Rather, he should both respect him and yet evaluate him as merely God's creature.  --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
1. What impact will our relative wealth or poverty here on earth have on us in eternity?

The consonant initial 'ayin of arum ("shrewd," v.3) and 'eqeb ("wage," v.4), and the theme of human accountability bind vv. 3-4 together as a proverb pair. --Bruce Waltke in NICOT

3                                   But
A prudent man             the simple  
foresees evil                pass on
and hides himself,       and are punished.

prudent...  (singular) a root with positive (prudence) and negative (shrewdness) connotations.  --TWOT
evil... Heb “evil,” a term that is broad enough to include (1) “sin” as well as (2) any form of “danger” (NIV, NCV, NRSV, NLT) or “trouble” (TEV, CEV). The second option is more likely what is meant here: The naive simpleton does not see the danger to be avoided and so suffers for it.  --NET Bible translation notes    
simple...  (plural - hinting that the majority is not always right.--Paul Koptak in NIVAC) The naive person, oblivious to impending danger.
> "Scripture gives blind optimism its right name: not faith, but folly.  Cf. 14:15, 16.  The saying is repeated in even terser Hebrew at 27:12."  --Derek Kidner TOTC
punished...  The verb עָנַשׁ (’anash) means “to fine” specifically. In the Niphal stem it means “to be fined,” or more generally, “to be punished.” In this line the punishment is the consequence of blundering into trouble – they will pay for it. 
> Punished (AV): Moffatt, better, 'and pays for it'. --Derek Kidner TOTC 

By humility and the fear of the Lord 
Are riches and honor and life.  

By...  The first Heb. word (AV: RV: the reward of) means 'the consequence of'.  Because God is God, it just follows--but in His time.  Cf. Luke 14:11. --Derek Kidner TOTC
humility...  “Humility” is used here in the religious sense of “piety”; it is appropriately joined with “the fear of the Lord.” Some commentators, however, make “the fear of the Lord” the first in the series of rewards for humility, but that arrangement is less likely here.  --NET Bible translation notes 
and...  There is no and after humility; but it is probably right to supply it rather than take the next phrase as defining 'humility,', which is a harsher construction.) --Derek Kidner TOTC
fear of the LORD...  Heb “the fear of the Lord.” This is an objective genitive; the Lord is the object of the fear.  --NET Bible translation notes
riches...  Strong's H6239 - `osher : wealth
honor...  Strong's H3519 - kabowd :The basic meaning is “to be heavy, weighty,” a meaning which is only rarely used literally, the figurative (e.g. “heavy with sin”) being more common. From this figurative usage it is an easy step to the concept of a “weighty” person in society, someone who is honorable, impressive, worthy of respect. --John N. Oswalt in TWOT
life...  H2416 - chay : life

1. How can humility and the fear of the Lord make someone more prudent?
2. After our children have experienced the "calamity" of not being prudent, how do we balance appropriate compassion with instruction about how a prudent person would recognize important clues in that situation?   

The center of the subunit on the Lord's sovereignty over wealth and poverty (22:1-9) does not mention the topic as such but focuses on the need for educating youth in the way that leads to true riches.  The concept of paying attention to one's way (vv.3-4) and the need to orient youth to the right way (vv.5-6) link the partial subunits.  --Bruce Waltke in NICOT

Thorns and snares are in the way of the perverse; 
He who guards his soul will be far from them. 

Thorns and snares...  Because MT reading צִנִּים (tsinnim, “thorns”) does not make a very good match with “traps,” it has created some difficulty for interpreters. The word “thorns” may be obscure, but it is supported by the LXX (“prickly plants”) and an apparent cognate “thorns” in Num 33:55 and Josh 23:13. ...  The present translation (like many other English versions) has retained “thorns,” even though the parallelism with “traps” is not very good; as the harder reading it is preferred. The variant readings have little textual or philological support, and simplify the line.  --NET Bible textual criticism notes
snares...   The metaphor refers to temptations such as easy sex and easy money that tempt youth.  --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
perverse...  Strong 6141 'qqesh : lit. "a crooked person" a play on the path image --Paul Koptak in NIVAC)
guards...  The basic idea of the root is “to exercise great care over.” --TWOT

Train up a child in the way he should go, 
And when he is old he will not depart from it. 
"The second part of this verse has challenged the faith of many a godly parent. Obviously many children who have received good training have repudiated the way of wisdom later in life. The explanation for this seemingly broken promise lies in a correct understanding of what a proverb is."  --Thomas Constable's Expository Notes on Proverbs

Train...  The verb חָנַךְ (khanakh) means “to train up; to dedicate” (BDB 335 s.v.; HALOT 334 s.v. חנך). The verb is used elsewhere to refer to dedicating a house (Deut 20:5; 1 Kgs 8:63; 2 Chr 7:5). The related noun חֲנֻכָה (khanukhah) means “dedication; consecration” (BDB 335 s.v.; HALOT 334 s.v.), and is used in reference to the dedication or consecration of altars (Num 7:10; 2 Chr 7:9), the temple (Ps 30:1), and town walls (Neh 12:27). The related adjective חָנִיךְ (khanikh) describes “trained, tried, experienced” men (BDB 335 s.v.; Gen 14:14). In the related cognate languages the verb has similar meanings: Aramaic “to train,” Ethiopic “to initiate,” and Arabic IV “to learn; to make experienced” (HALOT 334 s.v.). This proverb pictures a child who is dedicated by parents to the Lord and morally trained to follow him.    --NET Bible translation notes
child...  The noun can refer to a broad range of ages (see BDB 654-55 s.v.; HALOT 707 s.v.): infant (Exod 2:6), weaned child (1 Sam 1:24), young child (Jer 1:6), lad (Gen 22:12), adolescent (Gen 37:2), or young man of marriageable age (Gen 34:19). The context focuses on the child’s young, formative years. The Talmud says this would be up to the age of twenty-four.  --NET Bible translation notes
way...  “In the way he should go” is literally “according to his way.” It may mean according to his personality, temperament, responses, or stage in life. On the other hand it could mean the way in which he ought to go. The Hebrew grammar permits either interpretation. However the context favors the latter view. “Way” in Proverbs usually means the path a person takes through life, not one’s personality, disposition, or stage in life. Consequently the verse is saying the parent should train up a child in the way of wisdom to live in the fear of God.  --Thomas Constable's Expository Notes on Proverbs
Linked with 'path' in verse 5 by the catchword "way"  --Derek Kidner TOTC

1. We usually focus on these two proverbs from the parents perspective.  Are there any implied lessons for our children?
2. What does it mean to "guard our soul?"  What concrete steps or tactics do you use to guard your soul and avoid the thorns and thistles?
3.  What do young children need to guard their souls from?  How can we teach them to do that? 

We often look at verse seven as a warning to those who would borrow money.  While the proverb does give a helpful warning about that, the context of verses 8 and 9 put the focus on the rich lender.
The rich rules over the poor
And the borrower is servant to the lender.  
“While a certain amount of honest debt is expected in today’s world, and everybody wants to achieve a good credit rating, we must be careful not to mistake presumption for faith. As the familiar adage puts it, ‘When your outgo exceeds your income, then your upkeep is your downfall.’"  --Warren Wiersbe, Be Skillful, p. 93.
This verse warns the borrower that he puts himself in a vulnerable position by borrowing. He becomes dependent on another or others by borrowing. An unscrupulous lender might take advantage of him. ...
“The verse may be referring to the apparently common practice of Israelites selling themselves into slavery to pay off debts (see Exod 21:2-7). It is not appreciably different from the modern debtor who is working to pay off bills.”  --Allen Ross, Expositor's Bible Commentary, p. 1062 (Thomas Constable's Expository Notes on Proverbs)
rules...   The proverb is making an observation on life. The synonymous parallelism matches “rule over” with “servant” to show how poverty makes people dependent on, or obligated to, others.  --NET Bible study notes
servant...  Or “slave” (so NAB, NASB, NRSV, TEV, CEV). This may refer to the practice in Israel of people selling themselves into slavery to pay off debts (Exod 21:2-7).  --NET Bible translation notes

He who sows iniquity will reap sorrow, 
And the rod of his anger will fail.  

sows...  The verse is making an implied comparison (a figure of speech known as hypocatastasis) between sowing and sinning. One who sins is like one who sows, for there will be a “harvest” or a return on the sin – trouble.  --NET Bible translation notes
sorrow...  Strong's H205 - 'aven : trouble, wickedness, sorrow
rod of anger... The synonymous parallels of vv. 8a(a) and 8b(a) match two metaphors, "sowing injustice" and "rod of fury," to depict the rich person as an unsympathetic tyrant exercising cruel misconduct toward a neighbor, and Ab and Bb assert that the tyrant's iron rod will come to an end.  --Bruce Waltke in NICOT

He who has a generous eye will be blessed, 
For he gives of his bread to the poor.  

generous eye...  Heb “good of eye.” This expression is an attributed genitive meaning “bountiful of eye” (cf. KJV, ASV “He that hath a bountiful eye”). This is the opposite of the “evil eye” which is covetous and wicked. The “eye” is a metonymy representing looking well to people’s needs. So this refers to the generous person (cf. NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).  --NET Bible translation notes

1. How do verses 8 and 9 inform our attitude toward those we have helped or lent money to?  (cf. Deuteronomy 15:7-11; Job 31:16-20; 1 timothy 6:18-19)
2.  What applications are there for our children about their attitudes toward their younger siblings? 

(b) Wealth and Moral Instruction (22.10-16)
  1. Introduction: The Kings Friends
10                                 Yes,
Cast out the scoffer,    
and contention             strife and reproach
will leave;                    will cease.  

scoffer... The “scorner” is לֵץ (lets), the one the book of Proverbs says cannot be changed with discipline or correction, but despises and disrupts anything that is morally or socially constructive.  --NET Bible study notes
nasb, rsv, nkjv--scoffer; kjv--scorner; niv84, hcab, nlt--mocker

> "If the mocker were teachable, one could endure him in hope of improovement, but since he is nt (see 9:7-8), he must be banished to protect the community from his baneful effects."  --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
contention...  H4066 - madown : strife, contention
nasb, kjv, nkjv--contention; rsv, esv, niv84--strife; hcsb--conflict; nlt--fighting
strife...  H1779 - diyn : judgment; dispute, legal suit, strife (i.e. a strong disagreement)
nasb, kjv, nkjvstrife; rsv, esv, hcsb--quarreling; niv84, nlt--quarrels
reproach...  H7036 - qalown : shame, disgrace, dishonour, ignominy; "This root signifies the lowering of another's social position..." --TWOT
nasb--dishonor, hcsb; kjv, nkjv--reproach; rsv, esv--abuse; niv84, nlt--insults

11                        And
He who 
loves                    has
purity of heart    grace on his lips,
The king will be his friend.  

purity...  It is used almost exclusively of ritual or moral purity. ...The LXX generally translates ṭāhēr and its derivatives by katharizō, katharos, katharismos, etc. “to purify,” “pure,” “purity.”  --Edwin Yamauchi in TWOT
heart... a synecdoche for the person.  --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
grace on his lips...  Heb “grace of his lips” (so KJV, ASV). The “lips” are a metonymy of cause representing what is said; it also functions as a genitive of specification.  --NET Bible Translation notes 
> This individual is gracious or kind in what he says; thus the verse is commending honest intentions and gracious words.  --NET Bible study notes  
Proverbs 16.13  Kings take pleasure in honest lips; they value a man who speaks the truth.
"It is the equal partnership of integrity and charm, the one not diminishing the other, that is the rarity." --Derek Kidner in TOTC

2. Body: The LORD Upholds Truth and Subverts Treacherous Words
Verse 12 is the general statement.  The words of the faithless are illustrated by the lazy and immoral in verse 13-14. 
12                                     But
The eyes of the LORD        He
preserve                          overthrows
knowledge,                      the words of the faithless.  

The eyes of the LORD... The “eyes of the Lord” is an anthropomorphic expression; the omniscience of God is the intended meaning. When scripture uses the “eyes” of the Lord, it usually means evaluation, superintending, or safeguarding.  --NET Bible study notes
knowledge...  "..."knowledge" and "words of the treacherous" are not [precise antonyms], suggesting that "knowledge" refers to the words of His faithful teachers and "words of the treacherous" deny them.  --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
faithless...  The object of the verb is the “words of the traitor” (בֹגֵד דִּבְרֵי, divre voged); cf. NASB “the words of the treacherous man.” What treacherous people say is treachery. In this context “traitor, treacherous” refers to one who is “unfaithful” (cf. NIV).  --NET Bible translation notes 
Since the LORD is the focus of this verse, it would seem reasonable to think of unfaithful (or treacherous) being in respect to His word.

The lazy man says, "There is a lion outside! 
I shall be slain in the streets!"  
lion...  The proverb humorously describes the sluggard as making ridiculous excuses for not working – he might be eaten by a lion (e.g., 26:13). It is possible that “lion” is figurative, intended to represent someone who is like a lion, but this detracts from the humor of the exaggeration.   --NET Bible study notes

The mouth of an immoral woman is a deep pit; 
He who is abhorred by the Lord will fall there.  
mouth... "her mouth" is the pit, probably to link the proverb with "words" in 22:12. --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
immoral woman...  H2114 - zuwr : to be strange, be a stranger (The immoral woman is called a stranger because her actions are not consistent with the law and the expected behavior of a pure Israelite woman.)
deep pit... The point of the metaphor is that what the adulteress says is like a deep pit. The pit is like the hunter’s snare; it is a trap that is difficult to escape. So to succumb to the adulteress – or to any other folly this represents – is to get oneself into a difficulty that has no easy escape.  --NET Bible translation notes
abhorred...  H2194 - za`am : to denounce, express indignation, be indignant
NASB, HCSB--cursed by the LORDKJV, NKJV--who is abhorred; RSV, ESV--with whom the LORD is angry; NIV84--who is under the LORD's wrath; NLT--those who make the LORD angry
> Heb “the one who is cursed by the Lord” (cf. NASB). The construction uses the passive participle in construct with Yahweh. The “Lord” is genitive of agency after the passive form. The verb means “be indignant, express indignation.” So it is talking about one against whom the Lord is angry.  --NET Bible translation notes
> Usually the verbs associated with the noun za'am have a clear judgment aspect (cf. Ps. 69:24[25]; Ezek 21:31[36]; 22:31; Zeph. 3:8)... --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
> Who is abhorred by the Lord?

3. Conclusion: Moral Instruction and Wealth 

Foolishness is bound up in the heart of a child; 
The rod of correction will drive it far from him.  

foolishness...  H200 - 'ivveleth : Some derive ʾĕwîl from yāʾal “be foolish,” while another possibility is from an Arabic word meaning “be thick,” and therefore “thick-brained” or “stupid.”  
The NIV renders “fool” in Prov 1:7 with a footnote: “The Hebrew words rendered fool in Proverbs, and often elsewhere in the OT denote one who is morally deficient.” Such a person is lacking in sense and is generally corrupt. If one can posit a gradation in the words for fool, ʾĕwîl would be one step below kĕsîl*  and only one step above nābāl** (q.v.). An even stronger word in Proverbs is lēṣ,*** often translated “scoffer.” The ʾĕwîl is not only a kĕsîl because of his choices, but he is also insolent."
As indicated, ʾĕwîl primarily refers to moral perversion or insolence, to what is sinful rather than to mental stupidity. This kind of a fool despises wisdom and is impatient with discipline. He who does not fear God is a fool and will be unable to grasp wisdom or benefit from godly discipline (Prov 1:7). --Louis Goldberg in TWOT
* Strong's # 3684 kes-eel' :   properly, fat, i.e., (figuratively) stupid or silly
** Strong's # 5036 nābāl :stupid; wicked (especially impious)
*** Strong's 3887 lēṣ : properly, to make mouths at, i.e., to scoff
heart of a child...  The “heart of a child” (לֶב־נָעַר, lev-na’ar) refers here to the natural inclination of a child to foolishness. The younger child is meant in this context, but the word can include youth. R. N. Whybray suggests that this idea might be described as a doctrine of “original folly” (Proverbs [CBC], 125). Cf. TEV “Children just naturally do silly, careless things.”  --NET Bible translation notes
rod...  The word “rod” is a metonymy of adjunct; it represents physical chastening for direction or punishment, to suppress folly and develop potential. The genitive (“discipline”) may be taken as an attributive genitive (“a chastening rod”) or an objective genitive, (“a rod [= punishment] that brings about correction/discipline”).  --NET Bible translation notes
> "Since the folly incurs the LORD's curse (v. 14b; cf. Eph. 2:3), this proverbs seeks to protect the youth from the eternal death through the father's relatively light sting." --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
of correction...  “Discipline” (mûsār) is moral correction, which includes spankings (the rod; cf. 13:24; 23:13–14; 29:15), verbal correction, and other forms of discipline."  --Sid S. Buzzell  in The Bible Knowledge Commentary
16                                      And
He who                              he who
oppresses the poor           gives to the rich,
to increase his riches,       ---
will surely come to poverty. 

"The section begins with a proverb about honor and ends with one of shame, both calling for a proper attitude toward wealth and riches (22:1, 16)."  --Paul Koptak in NIVAC oppresses...   H6231 - `ashaq : to press upon, i.e., oppress, defraud, violate, overflow
> The juxtaposition of one who takes money from the poor, who needs it, with the one who gives to the rich, who does not need it, points up the folly.  for example, "it happens when executives are paid exorbitant sums ... and overwork their remaining employees. (Van Leeuwen)"   --Bruce Waltke in NICOT
poor...   H1800 - dal : properly, dangling, i.e., (by implication) weak or thin

poverty...  H4270 - machcowr : deficiency; hence, impoverishment
gives...  The gifts given to the rich are to secure their favor, not out of love for them (cf. 14:31; 19:17; 28:3).  --Thomas Constable's Expository Notes on Proverbs