Thursday, April 23, 2015

Proverbs, Ezekiel, Daniel, and TGC Conf 2015

"Because you set your heart as the heart as the heart of a god..."
I am thinking about this sobering charge against Tyre in Ezekiel 28.6. Their heart had been lifted up because of their wisdom, success, and riches. God, please keep me humbly focused on Your greatness and my proper place before you.

Proverbs 8.34-36
"Blessed is the man who listens to me,
Watching daily at my gates,
Waiting at the posts of my doors.
For whoever finds me finds life,
And obtains favor from the LORD;
But he who sins against me wrongs his own soul;
All those who hate me love death."
1. Those of us who are able to read and reflect on God's Word each day are blessed and we should take advantage of the opportunity with all our heart and mind.
2. The words "life" and "favor" appear to tie wisdom to the Gospel way. This transforms wisdom in Proverbs from "Christian common sense" to a fleshing out of what it means to follow the Lord. Proverbs is a practical explanation of salvation and sanctification.
3. Enlightened self-interest will cause us to follow the Lord's wise way.
4. Am I really listening to wisdom today?

Ezekiel 36.23 "...and the nations shall know that I am the LORD," says the Lord GOD, "when I am hallowed in you before their eyes."
This was written in a specific context of Israel's return to the land, but I am thinking about how I can make God holy in the eyes of the "nations" around me.

Straight and turn.
Proverbs 9.15
To call to those who pass by,
Who go straight on their way:
16 "Whoever is simple, let him turn in here";
Being on a straight simple road is not a good thing if it going the wrong way. I'm thinking about what makes a simple one have the awareness and desire to turn into to Wisdom's house.

"At the foot of the cross we both receive forgiveness and we learn how to forgive." --HB Charles Jr.

"At the end of the day, if all you had was what you had thanked God for that day, what would you have?" (Thanks Sarah Barnett)

The Hebrew shรค·mar' has the idea of "to guard, preserve, pay attention to, and heed" much like the watchman would do for a city. It seems to indicate a higher level of engagement. That kind of attention and focus has the happy side effect of keeping you us the right way.
Proverbs 10.17
He who keeps instruction* is in the way of life,
But he who refuses correction goes astray.

* or "discipline"

Hard preaching on forgiveness by H.B. Charles Jr.
"You like the servant are a guilty sinner. You have an incalculable debt of sin that you could never repay if you had a thousand chances to do it. You go before the king. You deserve judgement, punishment, condemnation. You ask for mercy because that is all you can ask for, and you receive mercy and grace. By the blood of Jesus Christ God gives you the best He has to pay the penalty of your sin at the cross and by faith instead of being a guilty sinner on your way to Hell, you are a born again child of God on your way to Heaven.
Do you mean to tell me you believe all of that and you got a list of people that you ain't talkin' to? What? How does that work? How every day are you going to thank God for mercy and grace and be mad at people at the same time!?"

Proverb 11.4 helps to frame an understanding for much of the book and adds clarity to other Proverbs like verse 28.
4 "Riches do not profit in the day of wrath,
But righteousness delivers from death."
28 "He who trusts in his riches will fall,
But the righteous will flourish like foliage."
Lord, help me to use the riches you give me, etc to prepare myself for what really matters.

Proverbs 12.
15 The way of a fool is right in his own opinion,
but the one who listens to advice is wise.
16 A fool's annoyance is known at once,
but the prudent overlooks an insult. (NET)
This chapter begins by saying that the one sho refuses correction is stupid (Every child should memorize and understand that one.). That heart attitude helps us not feel that we must be right about every little thing every time.
Lord, help me have a teachable spirit that doesn't sweat the small stuff.

In what sense can we say we love someone if we have no active interest in whether they walk in the right way?
Proverbs 13.24
He who spares his rod hates his son,
But he who loves him disciplines him promptly. (nkjv)
The one who spares his rod hates his child,
but the one who loves his child is diligent in disciplining him. (Net)

Ezekiel 44.7a "When you brought in foreigners, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in My sanctuary to defile it—My house—"
I am thinking about the difference between obeying the physical command and embracing the truth it represents. It seems that it is not an "either/or" proposition but a question of complete heartfelt obedience. Am I going part way or am I "all in"?

Tim Keller - TGC conference - 150413
Deut. 30.1-20 - "Life and Prosperity, Death, and Destruction"
Their are two destinies.
De. Is at the end of Moses' life. He is handing them off to new leadership. This is a covenant renewal document (esp. 28-32).
Ch. 28 talks about unconditional blessings and conditional curses if they obey or disobey.
It is astounding a person understanding God as that is endless love and that punishes so vigorously. This creates a tension.
God both punishes sin and rewards good because He is so comprehensively good. He is good in terms of holiness and love.
This is the narrative tension that drives the Bible.

Three things Deuteronomy says about the future.
I. We will all Fail.
Verse 1 says you will fail. You know what you should do, but won't do it.
That's not good motivational speaking, but it's good Gospel preaching.
Everybody basically knows what they ought to be doing, they just can't do it.
We don't even live up to our own moral standard.
You will never pull yourself together without outsid help.
II. God has a plan to fix our hearts.
v.6 center of the passage
Phil. 3.3 This is Gospel. What's a circumsized heart?
Heart: the control center of the whole being. Gen 6 Heart is the place you decide to ... how it directs the mind, will, and emotions. What do you do when you have nothing to do?
Circumcision is an external sign that I am obedient.
When what you ought to do and want to do are the same thing that is circumcision of the heart.
Our pleasure and our duty,
Though opposite before;
Since we have seen his beauty,
Are joined to part no more:
To see the Law by Christ fulfilled,
to hear His pardoning voice;
transforms a slave into a child,
And duty into choice.
- John Newton
Circumcision is gross and bloody.
Col. 2.11-12
The curse of the covenant is to be cut off.
v. 11. cf. Romans 10.6-9. Only the Gospel is the word that is not too difficult for you.
The blessings and the cursings point to Heaven and Hell.
Hell is deserved and Heaven is not.

Augustus Lopes - TGC Conference - 150413
John 14.1-14 "The Father's Home and the Way There"
His purpose
1. Jesus tells them not to be troubled v. 1
Even in the midst of his trials he was caring for them
They were concerned 1. He was going to leave them (confused and upset). 2. Jesus said Peter would deny Him
Both verbs as one that fits the context better.
They should believe He and the Father are God
2. Three reasons to not be troubled v. 2-3
-- Many rooms in Father's house. He calls it His Father's house in.
contrast to the Temple from which they would be expelled. There was room for them.
-- He is going to prepare them a place.
Does not refer to construction. Jesus death and resurrection is how he was preparing for them to be able to get in.
His departure was necessary and that should comfort them.
--He is returning to get them
When? After the resurrection? via the HolySpirit? when they die? Or His second coming.
Stay with Him? The important part is not where, but with Him.
3. The Way to the Father's House v. 4-7
The Father's house refers to Be God's Kingdom, Heaven and the New Heaven and Earth. He has both in mind.
Thomsa reaction shows the disciples were not sure what he was talking about.
He was the only way there.
v.6 they should have known what he meant.
Request by Philip. A vision like Moses
The encounter Philip wanted had been going on. They lacked an understanding of the divinity of Christ.
Signs refer to Jesus' actions of love.
5. They could continue His ministry 8-11
Those who would beleive
Main goal of passage is to quiet there hearts. By faith they
Signs are a piece of the whole.
These would be done by all who believe.
1. The reason they would be able to do greater is Jesus was going to the father because of their salvation.
He would answer their prayer. The Promise is given in the context of doing the works of Jesus.
Jesus would use his disciples to continue His work (described in Acts).
They reached more of the world and had more converts. They would experience the power's of the world to come.
Implications of this passage in persecution.
1. Jesus pointed to the future. We can't put our hope in the future and remember our feet are on the ground here.
2. The way Jesus' disciples to help people and called on sinners to repent and call on Christ.
3. God can work miricals, but works through incarnation.
4. There is no salvation outside of Christ.
5. Our hope is His presence regardless of the timing of his coming.
6. How do you know you have a room there? Do I see the works of Jesus through me?
This our hope. Do his words.

Proverbs 14.30b-31
30 ... But envy is rottenness to the bones.
31 He who oppresses the poor reproaches his Maker,
But he who honors Him has mercy on the needy.
I don't think that these proverbs usually ended up next to each other by accident, so today I am thinking about the relationship between envy and oppression and the Gospel ethic of building up and trusting God to care for me.

TGC Conference 2015 - 150414
Mark Dever - The Day of the Lord
1 Thessalonians 4.13-18
Secular Sam
Successful, intelligent, nice girl, nice car, etc. and an evangelical (minus a few things), values Scripture, student of Scripture, moral, studies the Bible.
He doesn't have the blessed hope. His life is based in this age.
One can be focused on this age while ignoring the next. Focusing on

I. The hopelessness of secularism 4.13-18
v13. Ignorance about death caused them to grieve as those with no hope.
Materialism - believing nothing but matter exists.
Paul speaks hope to them based on their union with Christ. We will die and rise in Christ.
Paul uses the word the described an empiror's visit where a delegation goes out to meet the coming lord. The dead in Christ rise first to meet him when he returns.
v17. Those alive when He returns will rise as Christ did and meet him in the air.
PAU: There is a great hope that you can have. This world is not all there is. It is to small to contain the hopes of one made in the image of God.
We ratify Adam's choice with our sin. God accepted Christ's sacrifice in our place.
II. The Imorality of Secularism 5.1-8
The real problem is those who live in darkness. 5.1
"The Day of the Lord" is a day that belongs in a peculiar sense to God. God's rule is utterly revealed at the return of Christ.
Their ignorance causes their suprise.
Americans thought Europe had nothing to do with them before WW I.
The Day of the Lord will be sudden and unexpected.
v. 7. They are asleep though important men ofhr world.
When you realize He is coming, you will live in the light of that knowledge with self-control knowing they will give account.
God judges not because He must, but because he will because He is good.
Why do you do the things you do? What hope is moving you.
v.9-10 Live with Him then and now. Life has a purpose and meaning
At the end of both of these sections he admonishes us to encourage each other. "Thank God I am ready." Are you? Are you living like that?

Proverbs 15.16-17
16 Better is a little with the fear of the LORD,
Than great treasure with trouble.
17 Better is a dinner of herbs where love is,
Than a fatted calf with hatred.
Wealth and a good steak are better than poverty and vegetables, but don't make up for spiritual or relational disfunction.
Lord watch my heart and relationships.

TGC 2015 Conf - 150415
Romans 8.16-26 - Ligon Duncan
Rom. Ch. 6-8 how grace in our lives
8. The Holy Spirit in our life
1-4 growing in grace despite sin
5-11 diff between godliness and worldliness
18-25 How present suffering works for future
28-30 How you are certain of God's promise
35-39 how we can be more than conquerors
Our present suffering is connected to our future glory
In eschatology there is a now and not yet. It is said evangelicals care so much about the not yet that they don't care enough about now.
We have been so concerned about people's salvation that we have lostbsightbof the big picture.
"Not yet" matters now and "now" on the "not yet." Now counts for forever and forever matters now.
I. v16. The witness of the spirit assures us of our sonship in our present suffering.
--Christians are assured of there sonship by the witness of the Spirit.
--Suffering also bears witness that you are the children of God.
There are internal and external aspects.
It is not your job to give assurance (the Holy Spirit's)
--God had one son without ain, but no sons without suffering. How do you think about your suffering? Angry, bitter, hopeless, numb?
Prosperity and open theism teachers don't understand this teaching
1 John 3.2. We are children of God and inheritors of the Abrahamive covenant.
God Himself is the greatest promise. ( Heirs of God) God gets us and we get God
joint heirs with Christ (recipients of the Father's love for Christ)
A. Understanding that this age will be an age of suffering
You are guaranteed a live of suffering because we are children of God.
God has a purpose for this suffering that transcends the "now." God will make my pain serve His eternal purpose in me.
B. The sufferings now are incomprehensible compared to eternity v18ff
The glory is put before your eyes now so you can endure and bless.
God uses the sufferings to produce future glory.
It will be amazing what God has worked in your life.
Sin makes you less like God even though the image is not erased.
We shall be like Him. 1 John 3.2
C. You are not alone in your suffering vv.19-22
Creation groans (Gen 3) Creation suffers the futility of Ecclesiasties
You are not alone looking forward to the new earth
v19 Creation awaits the revealing of the sons of God. It looks at you. It waits for the unveiling of the children of God.
Creation is created to declare he glory of God and one day the creation will be agog and what God has done in Nd thru you.
D. 23-25. We must live this in this light deliberately in light of the future.
The future hope is the redemption of the body ( not the precious intermediate separated from the body and with Xp)
Job: In my body I see my God
God will declare "These are my children." before the persecutors.
The Christian life is primarily a life of endurance. If our eyes are appropriately on the "future hope" it will give us endurance for the now.
"Endurance trumps zeal every time."--??
"Now" matters, but you can't live the now unless your hope is on the future glory, what we will be.

TGC Conf. 2015 - 150414
Voddie Baucham - 1 Cor 15.35-58
He has proved that the resurrection is true and now shows how that is.
He frames it as an answer to a question in verse 35.
It is difficult to grasp for unbelievers, but a foolish question for believers wh have the evidence of Apostolic revelation and general revelation through things dying and coming to life.
The FIRST thing the resurrection affirms is the Dignity of Humanity.
v.39 reviews days 4, 5, & 6 in reverse order
There is a different glory of the human body than there is in other bodies.
Federal headship -- our union with Christ
Our deaths is the result of our federal headship with Adam
Because of the virgin birth Christ was not under the headship. He lived a life of perfect obedience.
We stand under the federal headship of righteous Christ.
He is not just an example.
III. Changes our MISSIOLOGY. V.54 ff
When you stand over a believer, you know the reaurrection is comming.
What is this labor? vv.14-19. Preaching, proclamation of the Gospel, holiness, life of faith and righteousness.
Gospel labor is not in vain.
1. Our labor means the true effectual Gospel goes forth and that will never be in vain.
2. Our labor conforms us to the image of Christ in righteousness in Gospel labor.
Rom. 5.18-6.4. The resurrection is a picture of us walking in newness of life.
"I am the resurrection and the life."
It is not just something we look forward to. It is the already / not yet reality in which we walk.
3. Our labor prepares us for His coming.
We shepherd people to death preparing them to meet God.
4. Our labor gives us hope. We are being prepared for something more. It changes what you mean by theological terms and how you live you
1 1 Cor 11 - "Untill He comes

Proverbs 16
16 How much better to get wisdom than gold!
And to get understanding is to be chosen rather than silver.
17 The highway of the upright is to depart from evil;
He who keeps his way preserves his soul.
18 Pride goes before destruction,
And a haughty spirit before a fall.
19 Better to be of a humble spirit with the lowly,
Than to divide the spoil with the proud.
The priority of wisdom in our lives and humility will naturally save us from lots of trouble that can come to the over confident wealth seekers.
Lord, help me set my heart on you.

Proberbs 17.5
He who mocks the poor reproaches his Maker;
He who is glad at calamity will not go unpunished.
What we laugh at says something about who we are. We shouldn't laugh at tragedy or misfortune, something holy, sin, or things that are hurtful or mean to others. To laugh at these things reveals work that God still needs to do in our heart motivations.
May God Transform me to see the world as he does and laugh at the things that He laughs at.

Lord, keep my heart from over confidence empty things. Teach me to humbly trust you.
Proverbs 18.11-13
The name of the LORD is a strong tower;
The righteous run to it and are safe.
The rich man's wealth is his strong city,
And like a high wall in his own esteem.
Before destruction the heart of a man is haughty,
And before honor is humility.

King Solomon, just keeping it real. Ever had one of these days? lol
"Discipline your son, for there is hope;
do not set your heart on putting him to death."

Proverbs 20.22
"Do not say, 'I will recompense evil;'
Wait for the LORD, and He will save you."
The desire for revenge is usually an indication the we have lost sight of God's exacting justice or of His mercy and grace.
"How every day are you going to thank God for mercy and grace and be mad at people at the same time!?" ---HB Charles Jr

Daniel 6.22 "My God sent His angel and shut the lions' mouths, so that they have not hurt me, because I was found innocent before Him; and also, O king, I have done no wrong before you."
These comments from the IVP Bible Background Commentary shed some helpful light on this event.
"innocence by ordeal. “Ordeal” describes a judicial situation in which the accused is placed in the hand of God using some mechanism, generally one that will put the accused in jeopardy. If the deity intervenes to protect the accused from harm, the verdict is innocent. Most trials by ordeal in the ancient Near East involved dangers such as water, fire or poison. When the accused was exposed to these threats, he or she was in effect being assumed guilty until the deity declared otherwise."

Proverbs 21.29
A wicked man hardens his face,
But as for the upright, he establishes his way.

Rather than thoughtful reflection and rethinking what he's doing, the wicked doubles his resolve and says, " %}^+# the torpedoes! Full steam ahead!"
Lord, give me the humility, sensitivity, and holy thoughtfulness to establish my way in Your way.

Proverbs 22.6
He who oppresses the poor to increase his riches,
And he who gives to the rich, will surely come to poverty

This reminds me of some of the theme in 1 Timothy 6 where the Apostle warns that the desire to be rich comes with many temptations and snares. Apparently these are two symptoms or results of that condition.

Proverbs condemns sloth/laziness repeatedly, but I don't find the word "workaholic" in Proverbs. The book DOES repeatedly warn against becoming fixated with things, like riches, that have no eternal value.
Am I building something that will last?
Proverbs 23.4-5
Do not wear yourself out to become rich;
be wise enough to restrain yourself.
When you gaze upon riches, they are gone,
for they surely make wings for themselves,
and fly off into the sky like an eagle!


Monday, April 20, 2015

Ephesians 1.1-2 / Passage Teaching Overview

Passage Teaching Overview (modified largely from Simeon Trust materials)                    

Text:     Ephesians 1.1-2               Name:                     Phil Martin                                                     

INSTRUCTIONS: You will have about 5 minutes to present on the text. Walk us through the questions describing how you would teach the text.  Please provide a copy of this worksheet with your answers for the others in the group.

1.      How does the main theme (or melodic line) of the entire book inform the meaning of your specific text?  [How does this passage contribute toward the main thrust(s) of the whole book?]
Paul’s credential as an Apostle will be key to chapter three and add impetus to his teachings and admonitions in general.
Two words are repeated in the closing
·        faithful” (not standard in greetings) describes Tychicus in 6.21 and seems to contrast with “sincere/undying” (aphtharsia) which both allude to a different aspect of being faithful.  This hints at another undertone in the letter.
·        “peace” – (standard in greetings, but unique in the closing) This is closely related to the “together” part of our theme and closing.  Eph 6:23 Peace to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

2.      What is the broader context of your text? How does this context inform the meaning of your specific text? [Review the paragraph before and after this passage. Think about the lesson before and after yours.  How does your lesson transition between them?]
Due to the generic nature of this greeting, these verses do not have a strong connection to the following passage.  Several words/concepts do occur in the next section.
·        will of God” -  1. 5  “good pleasure of His will”
·        saints (lit. Holy) – 1.4 “that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love”
·        Grace – “His grace” in 1.6 (glory of); 1.7 (riches of). 
·        Peace 
2.14 For He Himself is our peace;
2:15 having abolished in His flesh the enmity, that is, the law of commandments contained in ordinances, so as to create in Himself one new man from the two, thus making peace
2:17 And He [Christ] came and preached peace to you who were afar off and to those who were near.
4:3 endeavoring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.
6:15 and having shod your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace
6:23 Peace to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
·        Father – 10 specific references through the book, esp. 1.3-6
·        Jesus is mentioned three times in two verses.  That may be significant; it is typical of the book and the focus of 1.7-12.

3.      What is the structure of your passage?  [Consider grammar, repetition, key terms, comparison and contrast, alternation in who is speaking, transitions in imagery, parallelism, verbs, commands. etc.  What is the structure of your Biblical text?]

1. Review basic theme and structure of Ephesians  (3 min.)
2. From: Paul; Apostle (of Christ, by will of God)  (7 min.)
Review Paul’s conversion/call to be an apostle, meaning of Apostle
3. To:  Ephesians; saints faithful  (7 min.)
Give brief review of Paul’s contact with the Ephesus and region.   
Apply the two words as characteristics of sanctification
4. Greeting / blessing:  grace and peace.  (7 min.)
Give historical-literary context for greeting. Briefly describe both words’ relation to the Gospel.
5. Intro next section and homework questions. / Encourage table time.  (3 min.)

4.      What emphasis does the structure reveal?  [The author’s intent—not our historical, emotional, cultural, personal or denominational need—is the key. –Utley  What does the context and structure of this passage emphasize. (Note questions three in “Going Beyond.”) ]

5.      How does your text relate to the Gospel?  [Christ and the Gospel are central themes of the Bible.  Where do we see Christ taught or alluded to in this passage?]
·        Grace and peace are both Gospel words that emphasize the character of the Father and purpose of Christ’s death, resurrection, and ascension.

6.      How do you hope people to think and act differently when this lesson sinks in?  [Your primary applications should be informed by the structural emphasis of your text and the main theme of the book.]
Our  appreciation for God’s grace and peace should prompt us to be holy and faithful. (believing)

Going Beyond:
1. What areas of systematic theology are taught or alluded to in this passage?
   The Bible (Bibliology)                                X  God (Theology Proper)                          X  The Father (Paterology)  
X  The Lord Jesus Christ (Christology)              The Holy Spirit (Pneumatology)                Man (Anthropology)
?  Sin (Harmatology)                                        X  Salvation / Sanctification (Soteriology)   ?  The Church (Ecclesiology)           
  Angels / Satan (Angelology)                         Future Things (eschatology)
2. Are there parallel passages, NT allusions to the OT, or important cross references for this passage?
·        Greetings in the epistles (letters) in the NT.

3. What are the concepts or doctrines that you would be tempted to unnaturally or disproportionally insert into this lesson?
·        There would be a tendency to go overboard on word studies, or how concepts are developed through the book. 
·        A temptation to give a detailed critic and comparison of Paul’s greetings in his letters

4.  What homework or questions would you like everybody to think about the week before you teach?
1. What do you learn about Paul and the church in Ephesus by reading the parts of Acts that talk about them?    Acts 18.18-21; 18.24-26; Acts 18.27, 28; Acts 19; Acts 20:17-35
2. How does this greeting compare with Paul’s others?
“This letter was specifically addressed to Christians living in Ephesus, but it was circulated widely among the Christian churches in what is now known as Turkey.  Paul had founded the church in Ephesus during his second missionary journey (Acts 18.18-21).  He had then moved on, leaving Priscilla and Aquilla to continue the work there.  Apollos later joined them in their work (Acts 18.24-26).  On a later visit Paul stayed in Ephesus for about three years, and when he left Apollos came to strengthen that missionary work (Acts 18.27, 28). His final visit to Ephesus lasted about three months (Acts 19).  On his final journey to Jerusalem Paul’s ship stopped at Miletus, and he invited the elders of the church at Ephesus to meet him there (Acts 20:17-35). Paul had thus put a lot of work into building this church, and we can understand why he wrote this very important letter to Christians whom he had helped to bring up in the Lord.  His affinity, passion and love for this church are clearly revealed in this letter.”
—Yusufu Turaki in the African Bible Commentary

Carpenter Flock notes / 150419 - Ephesians 1.1-2 - Greeting

Ephesians 1.1-2
Theme of Ephesians:  “Together in Christ to Walk Worthy”
Key issues:
Gentile and Jews coming together
New identity and behavior for Gentile converts
Spiritual powers (demons and magic)

PART ONE—From: Paul the Apostle (1.1a)
· Presumptuous Past—Philippians 3.5-6
Hebrew of Hebrews
Pharisee—strict interpretation and rigorous observance
Zeal—persecuted the church (Romans 10.2)
Kept the law blamelessly
· Glorious Conversion—Acts 9
vv. 4-6 Jesus stopped him on the road to Damascus
remarkable, life changing confrontation
Ananius—vv. 15-16  God to him to speak to Paul
· Compelling Commission—Acts 28
26.15-18  Commission in more detail
Apostle with a capital “A” especially to the Gentiles
1. The Twelve disciples—Those who were with Christ’s ministry and were personal witnesses to His resurrection
2. Authoritive Apostles like James (Gal 1.19) and Barnabas (Acts 4.14)
3. In a non-technical sense—“messengers” 2 Cor. 6.23

PART TWO— To the faithful saints in Ephesus (1.1b)
· Ephesus
 A. Who
Three old manuscripts have no name, but vast majority have “Ephesus”
Written to Ephesus in a style general enough for it to be circulated to surrounding towns
B. Setting
1. Leading metropolis of Asia Minor
Transportation Hub
200,000 – 250,000 in greater Ephesus
Wealthy city (silver smiths Acts 19.24)
2. Religious:  Aremis of Ephesus with 50+ other deities
3. Magical practices
4. Significant Jewish presence
· Saints
agois - “holy ones”
Refered to all not just a few
Part of the greeting in 6 of 9 letters to churches
Rom 1.7; 1 cor. 1.2—“called to be”
Cf. Philippians 1.13ff esp 15-16 “be holy” from Leviticus 11.44-45
· faithful
 pistos – reliable (believing)
Note closing / 6:23 sincerity, inorruptable, undying
Lit. incorruptible / pure, enduring

PART  THREE—Greeting: Grace and Peace  (1.2)
· Grace
Secular “joy or “greeting”
1. favor
1.6 gory of His grace
1.7 riches of His grace
2.7 riches of His grace in His kindness toward us
2. enablement
3.8 grace was given that I might preach
4.29 import grace to hearer
· Peace
1. Absence of conflict of between, harmony between
2.14-15 “He is our peace, who has made us one”
2.17 “preach peace”
2. Tranquility
6.23 “peace to the brethren”
“peace and harmony make and keep things safe and prosperous”
· Gospel—from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ
The Father showed His favor
2.5-7  the exceeding riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ
The Son
2.14 He is our peace, who made us one