Saturday, December 31, 2016

Numbers 20:1-13 / Is Obedience Enough? / 170101AM@TBC

Numbers 20.1-13  c.f. Ex 17.2-7?; Numbers 27.12-14; Deuteronomy 32:50-52; Psa. 106.32-33

We are going to reach back to the book of numbers for our text. 
Numbers is alluded to by the NT about 25 times.  The New Testament writers assume we will be familiar with its contents.  It is a reminder that we should be students of the whole Bible.  Now is a great time to revive or start a habit of systematically reading through the Bible.  #tbcreading / YouVersion / Bible Reading Plans booklets /
The Man: Moses
Today we are going to look for insights from an event in the life of Moses.  It was a low point for him, and it will be helpful to put it in perspective by briefly reviewing what kind of man he was.  In God’s books, Moses was a hero’s hero! 
·       Defender of the weak  Ex 2.11-20; Acts 7:23-29  Rescued a Hebrew slave and Jethro’s daughters.
·       Mighty Leader used by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt.  Ex 6-14 
·       Powerful in  prayer interceded for Israel with great effect.  Ex. 32.7-14 
·       “… Moses was very meek, more than all people who were on the face of the earth. (esv)  Numbers 12:3 
·       A Great Prophet  Deuteronomy 18:15-16 describes Jesus as a prophet like Moses that God would raise up.
·       Spoke face to face with God  Numbers 12:8; Matt. 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36
·       Faithful and a man of Faith By faith he was used to accomplish great things for God.  Numbers 12.7; Hebrews 11:24-28 
·       A Servant of God Revelation 15:3  “They sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb”  (nkjv)  (Also, s poet and songwriter)
·       Moses died as a respected leader of God’s people who disciple and trained his own successor, Joshua.
&  Numbers 20:1-13 
I. Setting  v.1
·       Biblical Context:  Third of three travel narratives in The Law: 
     1. Ex. 13:17-19:25; 35;   
     2. Num. 10:11-12:13;
     3. Num. 20:1-22:1
·       WHEN:  “First month” in the 40th year of the wandering,  the record of Aaron’s death helps us to date this.  (c.f. Num. 20:22-29; 33:38 dates Aaron’s death which follows in this chapter as in the 40th year.)
·       WHO:  Miriam died     This is symbolic of the death of the older generation.  She was one of the last who rejected God in Numbers 13-14
§  sister of Aaron and Moses(Ex 2:4)
§  watched the ark of bulrushes in which Moses was laid (Ex 2:4)
§  associated with her brothers in the exodus (Micah 6:4)
§  the prophetess who led the choir of maidens in the triumph-song after the crossing of the Red Sea (Ex 15:20 f).
§  opposed Moses (Along with Aaron) at Hazeroth (Nu 12:1-5)
 ·       WHERE:  Wilderness of Zin
Kadesh         Normally an oasis;   “the name Kadesh applying probably to the whole district as well as to a special locality”[1]
                           Numbers 13 / first generation rejected the promised land
…biblical geographers use texts like Num 13:21 and 34:3-4 to place the Wilderness of Zin between Beersheba and Kadesh-Barnea just north of the Wilderness of Paran and between the Arabah and the Mediterranean Sea.   -- Yohanan Aharoni, The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography (Philadelphia: Westminster; 1967), 31; Nelson Glueck, Rivers in the Desert: A History of the Negev (New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1959), 34; Levine, .Numbers.. 487; and Milgrom, Numbers, 102.
        WHAT:  No water        Considering the number of people and livestock, this was an impossible problem.

   II. The Rebels
And the people quarreled with Moses and said,
·       “Would that we had perished when our brothers perished before the Lord! 
·       Why have you brought the assembly of the Lord into this wilderness, that we should die here, both we and our cattle? 
·       And why have you made us come up out of Egypt to bring us to this evil place? It is no place for grain or figs or vines or pomegranates, and there is no water to drink.” 
            A.  The Complaints  v.2-5
TWOT #2159      רִיב (rîb) strive, contend.
1. To strive in the sense of physical combat is apparently primary.   2. By an easy transition, the verb is employed for verbal combat, i.e. to quarrel, to chide one another,   3. By another easy transition, it takes on a legal-judicial significance and, strangely, usually with God as acting subject.  There has been much discussion in recent times of the rîb motif as referring to the divine lawsuit against Israel for having broken the covenant.    4. A single reference seems to require the sense of “lie in wait” or “set an ambush” (I Sam 15:5)
Robert D. Culver, “2159 רִיב,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 845.
·       They gathered together against M & A     --This was serious.
o   If only we had died…        This is the new generation, who has now followed the old in giving up in unbelief. (A reminder for the young generation to not repeat the sins of their parents, etc.)
o   Why have you brought us…to die            Disbelieved God’s good intentions.
o   Why have you made us come…to this evil place      Doubting God’s goodness.  There is a difference between coming to God honestly with a desperate need and contending with an attitude of disbelieve and rebellion.
·    James 5.10-11     Be patient, therefore, brothers,  until the coming of the Lord. See how the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient about it, until it receives the early and the late rains. 8 You also, be patient. Establish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord is at hand. 9 Do not grumble against one another, brothers, so that you may not be judged; behold, the Judge is standing at the door.
10 As an example of suffering and patience, brothers, take the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord11 Behold, we consider those blessed who remained steadfast. You have heard of the steadfastness of Job, and you have seen the purpose of the Lord, how the Lord is compassionate and merciful.
G. S. -  This captures the heart of our sin and rebellion against God.  How dare we ever question or oppose Him?
B.  Lord’s directions v.6-8
·       Moses and Aaron fell on their faces                 That was a good place to be.
·       The glory of the Lord appeared…
·       The Lord said:
o   Take the rod                  (17:9-10) What did the rod remind them of? 
o   Take your brother Aaron       The two were acting together here.
o   Gather the congregation        This was to be done “before the people.” 
It was about making a statement to them about God.
o   Speak to the rock before their eyes   
1. the rock. (1 Cor. 10.4) What did the rock represent?   and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ.
2.  before the people  God wanted to demonstrate a lesson to the people.  He wanted the people to see him as holy.

 “The people had looked upon Moses and not upon God s their leader, and they had despaired.  –Alfred Edersheim in OT History
The way Moses and Psalm 106 speak of this event shows that the Israelites had part of “the blame” for Moses and Aaron’s failure here in that they wearied them with their repeated grumbling and contending with them and with God.
In fact the faithful servant of God, worn out by the reiterated perversities of the people, breaks down; and in the actual discharge of his duty as God‘s representative before Israel, acts unworthily of the great function entrusted to him. Thus, Moses did not “sanctify God in the eyes of the children of Israel.  --Albert Barnes
What is the lesson for us?
Be careful about looking to people instead of looking beyond them to God.
Be careful about complaining.
1. How easy is it for us in the middle of frustrating situations, to forget “the purpose of the Lord, how the Lord is compassionate and merciful.”
2. “If some Christians that have been complaining of their ministers had said and acted less before men and had applied themselves with all their might to cry to God for their ministers—had, as it were, risen and stormed heaven with their humble, fervent and incessant prayers for them—they would have been much more in the way of success.”  —Jonathan Edwards in Power Through Prayer (Chapter 18)
III. The Rock  v.9-11   What did Moses & Aaron say and do?
“Very often narratives in the Pentateuch appear pedantic and repetitious as they record the precise fulfillment of divine commands (cf. verses 25–26 with 27–28). But here there is a marked divergence between what was commanded and what was done.”[2]
So Moses…
·       Took the rod  “By the sight of “the rod,” God would recall both to Moses and the people so many miracles, which were well fitted to awaken confidence for the future…”  --John Calvin
We notice that the staff is not the rod of Aaron that had budded but the same staff that Moses has used to do wonders in Egypt (Exod 17:5) and in the desert all these years.  –Expositor’s Bible Commentary
·       Gathered the assembly together before the rock
·       He saidYou rebels! … Must we?
The word order and the emphasis of the tense are important to this passage. The word order is “from this rock must we bring out to you water?” The emphasis is clearly on “from this rock!” The verb is the imperfect tense; it has one of the modal nuances here, probably obligatory – “must we do this?”  --NET Bible Translation Notes
·       Lifted his hand and struck the rock twice
·       Water came out abundantly    God’s benevolence in spite of them.
·       The congregation and their animals drank         “Animals drank” indicates the abundance of water.  Neh. 9:15; Ps. 78:15, 16; 105:41; Is. 43:20; 48:21; 1 Cor. 10:4
O.P.  This reminds us of Christ’s provision of salvation for us.
·       On the surface, we might think of this as a good day—
It was a little rough, but crisis averted. 
·        However,
God told Moses and Aaron, “…you shall not bring this assembly into the land that I have given them.” (esv)
The use of the plural (“you”) in the Hebrew text suggests that Moses and Aaron are both in view here, since both had rebelled at some time or other, if not at Meribah-Kadesh then elsewhere (cf. Num 20:24; 27:14).  – NET Bible Translation Notes

Why did Moses not enter the Promised Land?    What did Moses and Aaron do wrong?
1. The reason for God’s anger may be that Moses addressed the people angrily as ‘rebels’ when God had not been angry with them.  But even more significantly, Moses’ anger led him to put himself in the roles of God, when he said, ‘must we bring you water out of this rock?’ (20;10).  The ‘we’ here refers to Moses and Aaron, who were putting themselves in the place of God who performs miracles.  --Anastasia Boniface-Malle in the African Bible Commentary
2. Moses did even more than God had commanded him.  Instead of speaking to the rock with the rod of God in hi s hand, as God directed him, he spoke to the congregation, and in these inconsiderate words, “Shall we fetch you water out of the rock?” words, which, if they did not express any doubt in the help of the Lord, were certainly fitted to strengthen the people in their unbelief, and are therefore described in Psalm 106.33 as prating (speaking unadvisedly) with the lips (cf. Lev 5:4).  He then struck the rock twice with the rod, “as if it depended upon human exertion, and not upon the power of God alone,”   as if the promise of God “would not have been fulfilled without all the smiting on his part”  --Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the OT
3. In addition, Moses disobeyed God’s command to speak to that rock (20:8).  He failed to trust that God’s word alone was sufficient to bring the water out of the rock, and so he tried to ’help’ God by striking the rock. … Moses, however, operated on the basis of his earlier experiences and ignored God’s voice in a new situation.  --Anastasia Boniface-Malle in the African Bible Commentary
“It is generally thought that the sin of Moses, in which Aaron shared, consisted in his striking the rock – and doing so twice – instead of merely speaking to it, “and is shall give forth its water;” and also, in the hasty and improper language which he used on the occasion, “Hear now, ye rebels, must we fetch water out of this rock?” … Lastly, how, in that case, could Aaron have been implicated in the sin of Moses? 
Of course, striking the rock was, as we read in Psalm 106:32, 33, evidence that they had “angered” Moses, and that “his spirit was provoked.”  --Alfred Edershiem in OT History
4. De 1.37   Even with me the Lord was angry on your account and said, ‘You also shall not go in there. (esv)
5. “because ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel; that Moses and Aaron committed an evil which was displeasing to the Lord is certain, but what that was is variously represented.
Some say their sin was, that the order was to speak to the rock, whereas it was smitten, and not spoken to; but why then was Moses bid to take the rod with him, if it was not to smite with it, as he had done before at Horeb? and besides, this would only have been the sin of Moses, and not of Aaron;
others think, that what provoked the Lord was, that the Israelites were called "rebels"; but this is a name the Lord himself gave them, Numbers 17:10, and was what they justly deserved; and what after this Moses says of them, which, had this been the case, he would have been careful to have abstained from, Deuteronomy 9:24.
Others are of opinion, that what was displeasing to the Lord was, that the bringing the water out of the rock was ascribed to themselves, and not to him; "must we fetch you water", &c.
Others suppose the sin was in smiting the rock twice, and in anger; but this could only be the fault of Moses at most.
Dr. LightfootF2 thinks the particular fault was this, that Moses expressed his displeasure and resentment to the Israelites, that on their murmuring a new rock was opening, which portended a new and long stay in the wilderness, as the opening of the first rock at Horeb did when he and Aaron were in expectation of being soon out of the wilderness, and now they feared they were beginning anew their abode in it;
but it is certain from the text that unbelief was their sin;”  ---John Gill
6. To summarize, Moses
  harshly rebuked the people (v.10),
·       took credit for what God had done (v.10),
·       resented the Israelites (v..10),
·       lost his temper (v.11),       [Psalm 106.32-33]
·       disobeyed God (v.11),
·       did not trust God’s power (v.12),
·       failed to glorify God (v. 12), and
·        rebelled against God (v.24).  –Thomas Constable’s Expository Notes on Numbers
 Be it observed, that Moses is not anywhere in Scripture blamed for striking instead of speaking to the rock, while it is expressly stated that the people “angered him also at the waters of strife so that it went ill with Moses for their sakes.”  --Alfred Edersheim in OT History
It is certain that God was greatly offended, …
Yet it is uncertain what it was in this management that was so provoking to God   --Matthew Henry
(We are sometimes in danger of reasoning our way to answers that are not clear in the text.
If the text does not clearly answer our question, maybe we are asking the wrong question.)

IV. “Qadash”  Nu 20.12; 27.14
·       What does the text say is the reason?
·       Because…
·       12 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Because you did not believe in me, to uphold me as holy in the eyes of the people of Israel, therefore you shall not bring this assembly into the land that I have given them.”  (esv)
A.  The account gives us two charges.  The first is worded three different was in four different references to Moses and Aaron’s sin.

1.   Num. 20.12 
Did not believe (trust in niv84, tniv, net, hcsb, nlt) Me                            
It is commonly held that Moses and Aaron were not allowed into the promised land because
·         Moses struck the rock twice (v.10) rather than speaking to it,
·         or that he was punished because of his anger of speaking harshly to the people (v. 10b)
·         or that he was attempting to take credit (“shall we bring forth,” v. 10c).
the stated reason in the text is not due to their disobedience but their lack of faith (because you have not believed me, to treat Me as holy in Israel, v.12 nasb).  The form of “believe” here involves acknowledging what someone says as true, but it also has the added meaning of acting in response to what is heard with trust or obedience.  --James Coakley in the Moody Bible Commentary
TWOT אָמַן (ʾāman) to confirm, support, uphold[3]
        to be certain, i.e. to believe in (Hiphil).[4]
H539 - 'aman: (Hiphil) to stand firm, to trust, to be certain, to believe in
(hif) believe, put faith, trust, have confidence, i.e., have faith as a believer in what God has revealed (Ge 15:6; Ex 4:5; Jnh 3:5); 9[5]

The verb is the main word for “believe, trust.” It is the verb that describes the faith in the Word of the Lord that leads to an appropriate action. Here God says that Moses did not believe him, meaning that what he did showed more of Moses than of what God said. Moses had taken a hostile stance toward the people, and then hit the rock twice. This showed that Moses was not satisfied with what God said, but made it more forceful and terrifying, thus giving the wrong picture of God to the people. By doing this the full power and might of the Lord was not displayed to the people. It was a momentary lack of faith, but it had to be dealt with.  --NET Bible Study Notes

“Faith is the correct response to God’s word, whether of promise or a word of command.”  --Gordon J. Wenham in Numbers (TCOT)

2. Num. 27.14-- rebelled against His Word  
13 When you have seen it, you also shall be gathered to your people, as your brother Aaron was,
14 because you rebelled against my word in the wilderness of Zin when the congregation quarreled, failing to uphold me as holy at the waters before their eyes.” (These are the waters of Meribah of Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.)  Num. 27.14  (nasb)
nasb, nkjv, net, hcsb—  rebelled against               My command   
rsv, esv—                          rebelled against               my word
nlt—                                  rebelled against               my instructions
niv84, tniv—                     disobeyed                          my command

o   What did Moses accuse Israel of being?

St # 4784 - marah : to be contentious, be rebellious, be refractory, be disobedient towards, be rebellious against
1242    מָרָה (mārâ) be rebellious against, disobedient towards.[6]
Twenty-two times the verb is used in the Qal stem and twenty-three times in the Hiphil stem. In this latter case the meaning or translation is something like “to provoke (by defiance).”[7]
The rebellion to which mārâ refers is specifically the rebellion of Israel/Judah against God. Only on a few occasions is the nation not involved.[8]
What is most often rebelled against is “the commandment/the word of the Lord,” (ʿet) (literally, “the mouth”). This is the most frequent direct object of the verb mārâ: I Kgs 13:21, 26; Lam 1:18; Ps 105:28; Num 20:24; 27:14, inter alia.[9]

Psalm 106
32 They angered Him also at the waters of strife,
So that it went ill with Moses on account of them;
33 Because they rebelled against His Spirit,
So that he spoke rashly with his lips.

3.  De 32.51  Broke faith with me
o   nasb, rsv, esv, niv84, tniv, hcsbbroke faith with me
o   kjv, nkjvtrespassed against me
o   nlt—betrayed me
1230          מָעַל (māʿal) transgress, commit a trespass, act unfaithfully.
1230a        מַעַל (maʿal) trespass.
In almost all the biblical references ʿal is used to designate the breaking or violation of religious law as a conscious act of treachery. The victim against whom the breach is perpetrated is God.   As we shall see, an almost formulaic phrase is ʿal maʿal bĕyhwh “to commit a tresspass against the lord” [Lev 6:2 [H 5:21]; Num 5:6; Josh 22:31; I Chr 10:13; II Chr 12:2; 26:16; 28:19, 22; 30:7). A variant, in the first person, is ʿal maʿal bî “to commit a trespass against me” (Lev 26:40; Ezk 14:13; 20:27; 39:23, 26).
It is these last verses from Num that furnish the best clues as to the nuance behind the word ʿal. Numbers 5:12 says. “if a man’s wife go aside (śāâ). and commit a trespass (ʿal) against him.” Verse 13 continues. “and a man lie with her carnally” It is obvious, then. that to “commit a trespass” means to act unfaithfully, to break a contract. The general idea is defection or unfaithfulness. Our English word “perfidy” would come perhaps closest of all.[10]

B.  To “qadash” me in the eyes of the people
o   nasb—                to treat Me as holy                     before their eyes
o   kjv, rsv/njkvto sanctify / hallow Me at the water before their eyes
o   esv—                   to uphold me as holy                 in the eyes of the people of Israel
o   niv84, tniv--      to honor me as holy                   in the sight of the Israelites
o   net—                  to show me as holy                    before the Israelites
o   hcsb—                to show My holiness                  in the sight of the Israelites
o   nlt—                  to demonstrate my holiness   to the people of Israel


TWOT 1990             קָדַשׁ (qādaš) be hallowed, holy, sanctified; to consecrate, sanctify, prepare, dedicate. Denominative verb.[11]

The verb qādaš in the Qal connotes the state of that which belongs to the sphere of the sacred. Thus it is distinct from the common or profane.


Strong’s # H6942 - qadash  (Hithpael) to keep oneself apart or separate.
2 to cause Himself to be hallowed (of God).
3 to be observed as holy.
4 to consecrate oneself.[12]

Exodus 3.

3 Then Moses said, "I will now turn aside and see this great sight, why the bush does not burn." 4 So when the Lord saw that he turned aside to look, God called to him from the midst of the bush and said, "Moses, Moses!" And he said, "Here I am." 5 Then He said, "Do not draw near this place. Take your sandals off your feet, for the place where you stand is holy ground."


He (Moses) was supposed to have acted in a way that would have shown God to be distinct, different, holy.  Instead, he gave the impression that God was capricious and hostile—very human.  NET Bible Study Notes

Sometimes we think of holy as the opposite of secular (something that has nothing to do with God).  The OT law never conceived any of life as being apart from or outside the realm of God’s influence.  The opposite of holy might better be described a common

One way of thinking about it is as walking down the sidewalk as you leave church as common, but when you come to cross the street there is a change of vigilance and attitude and alertness.  The street becomes “holy.” 

 Isa 5:15-16; Eze 36: 19-24 esp. 23; 38:21-23; 39:25-29 esp. 27;

VERSE 13:  and He (the LORD) was hallowed among them.
But God sanctified Himself on them, by the fact that,
on the one hand, He put their unbelief to shame by the miraculous gift of water,
and on the other hand punished Moses and Aaron for the weakness of their faith.  --Keil  Delitzsch Commentary on the OT

The basic idea of “he was holy” has to be the main idea, but in this context it refers to the to the fact that through judging Moses God was making sure people ensured his holiness among them.  The word also forms a word play on the name Kadesh.  – NET Bible Translation Notes

This idea of hallowing God is found in the fourth commandment.
“You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.  (esv)

When you come to God’s name, you pause, and make it meaningful.

Moses, who on at least two occasions successfully interceded on behalf of Israel
Deuteronomy 3. 23-26
.23 “And I pleaded with the Lord at that time [just before Israel entered the promised land], saying, 24 ‘O Lord God, you have only begun to show your servant your greatness and your mighty hand. For what god is there in heaven or on earth who can do such works and mighty acts as yours? 25 Please let me go over and see the good land beyond the Jordan, that good hill country and Lebanon.’ 26 But the Lord was angry with me because of you and would not listen to me. And the Lord said to me, ‘Enough from you; do not speak to me of this matter again. (esv)

V. Conclusion v.13 / Applications
--There was a core issue that went beyond not accurately following instructions.
o   Matthew 23.23  (esv)
o   23 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint and dill and cumin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness. These you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. 
o   --Our heart is the principle issue.  Actions and words follow the heart’s orientation.
o   --Parents, if your children do what they are told, when they are told with the wrong heart attitude, have they obeyed?  …or have they just complied?  
o   --Children, do you just do what you are told, or do you obey?
o   --There is a certain necessity to have our children comply with commands and practice procedures that you have taught them in order for our families to function smoothly and to keep them safe.  There is nothing wrong with that.  It is important.
o   --Is it possible to have a smooth running family and still have children who are unprepared to respond to God in faith and “hallow Him”?
o   --This is a heart issue.
o   --How do they learn to do this?  Where do they see it in action?  Who is going to model faith in God and hallowing of God for them?  Do they see us modeling this as we relate to others and to difficult circumstances?
I     I am hesitant to give you a simple list you can check off and feel relieved.

In what sense can we hallow or sanctify God?  We can’t make Him any more sinless or morally pure. 

1. We have certainty / faith in Him, in His character, and in His promises.

2. We humbly and completely submit to His Word.

3. We are faithful to our covenant with Him.

4. We act in a way that corroborates or vindicates his lofty and distinctive excellence.

Hebrews 10 and 12 both reinforce the importance hallowing God and responding to him in the New Testament era.

L.  How can you lay any claim to hallowing God when you reject His great and merciful salvation?
Hallow Him now by receiving His mercy or He will hallow Himself by the righteous and eternal judgement of your sin.

[1] Alfred Edersheim, Bible History: Old Testament, vol. 2 (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1975), 185.
[2] Gordon J. Wenham, Numbers: An Introduction and Commentary, vol. 4, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1981), 169.
[3] Jack B. Scott, “116 אָמַן,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 51.
[4] Jack B. Scott, “116 אָמַן,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 51.
hif Hiphil
[5] James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997).
[6] Victor P. Hamilton, “1242 מָרָה,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 526.
[7] Victor P. Hamilton, “1242 מָרָה,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 526.
[8] Victor P. Hamilton, “1242 מָרָה,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 526.
[9] Victor P. Hamilton, “1242 מָרָה,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 526.
[10] Victor P. Hamilton, “1230 מָעַל,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 520.
[11] Thomas E. Mccomiskey, “1990 קָדַשׁ,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 786.
[12] James Strong, Enhanced Strong’s Lexicon (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2001).