Wednesday, February 10, 2016

The Gospel of Mark: A Serving Savior / Tulsa Bible Church men's Bible study 2015-16 / Lesson 16 - “Jesus Takes on the Jewish Leaders” - Mark 12:1-44

Lesson 16 - “Jesus Takes on the Jewish Leaders” - Mark 12:1-44
ID: Inductive Questions (Asking the text questions like who, what, where, when, why, & how?”)
CR: Cross References (Comparing Scripture to Scripture, understanding the vague by the clear.)
WS: Word Study (Understanding definition, theological meaning, and usages in other passages.)
The WORD: What does the Bible say?
Context:  Read Mark 11:27-44 to help understand the context of this passage.  Read Mark 12:1-40 in a more literal or more dynamic translation than you usually use.  This section has six allusions to the Old Testament.  Review Psalm 118:22-23 (vv. 10-11), Deuteronomy 25:5 (v. 19), Exodus 3:6 (v. 26), Deuteronomy 6:4-5 (vv. 29-30) Leviticus 19:18 (v. 31), Psalm 110:1 (v. 36) to give background for your study. 
1.     ID/CR: (12:1-12)  Who was this parable directed toward?  In what way is it directed toward them?  How does it relate to Psalm 118:22-23?  (cf. Matt. 21:33–46; Luke 20:9–19)
2.     ID: (12:13-17) Why was this question one that the Herodians have a special interest in?  What do you think they expected Jesus to say?  What was their response to His answer?
3.     ID: (12:18-27)  What were the Sadducees trying to demonstrate with their story?  On what points were they mistaken?  (Exodus 3:6)
4.     ID: (12:28-34)  Is verse 29 (and 32) part of the first command?  What would some problems be with ignoring one (or part of one) of these commands?  Why did Jesus say the teacher was “not far from the kingdom?”  (1 Samuel 15:23-24; Hosea 6:6)
5.     ID: (12:35-37)  What do we learn about Christ in verses 35-37 (cf. Psalm 110:1)?  How do these truths relate to the surrounding events?
6.     ID/CR: (12:38-44) .What were the sins of the teachers of the law?  Can you think of any Old Testament passages that condemn similar sins?  Why is it hard for rich people (like us) to give a spiritually impressive amount?
The WALK: What should I do?
1.     Do you think about the coming resurrection often?  Does a belief in and awareness of the resurrection change your perspective on life?  How?  Why?
2.     (WS) In what practical ways do you love God with your heart (G-kardia; H-lebab), with your soul/understanding (G-synesis; H-nephesh),  and with your strength (G-ēskhü's; H-mehōde'),?
3.     What similar sins would Jesus condemn in your profession?
4.     Are you rich in any sense of the word?  Is it fair to compare portion of your income you give to someone lives on a $2-5 a day?  Do verses 41-44 make you want to reevaluate how much you give?
5.      Where in this passage do we see Gospel truths about God, Man, Christ, and our response
Going Beyond:  1. Memorize Mark 12:29-31 or Deuteronomy 6:4-5 and Leviticus 19:18.
2.  What areas of theology are touched on in this passage?  q The Bible   q God  q God the Father   q Jesus Christ    q The Holy Spirit    q Man   q Salvation   q The Church   q Angels & Satan   q Future Things

Posted on Fri, September 10, 2010 by David Hinkl
These leadership groups were the political/religious leaders of the Jews in the days of Jesus. They are often referred to and the articles below will help you get a sense for each of the three groups as well as the Sanhedrin, the ruling council that was made up of each of these groups. All of them were threatened by Jesus and conspired together to have Him crucified.
Herodians [N] [S]
a Jewish political party who sympathized with ( Mark 3:6 ; 12:13 ; Matt, 22:16 ; Luke 20:20 ) the Herodian rulers in their general policy of government, and in the social customs which they introduced from Rome. They were at one with the Sadducees in holding the duty of submission to Rome, and of supporting the Herods on the throne. (Compare Mark 8:15 ; Matthew 16:6 .)
Sadducees [N] [B] [H] [S]
The origin of this Jewish sect cannot definitely be traced. It was probably the outcome of the influence of Grecian customs and philosophy during the period of Greek domination. The first time they are met with is in connection with John the Baptist's ministry. They came out to him when on the banks of the Jordan, and he said to them, "O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?" ( Matthew 3:7 .) The next time they are spoken of they are represented as coming to our Lord tempting him. He calls them "hypocrites" and "a wicked and adulterous generation" ( Matthew 16:1-4 ; 22:23 ). The only reference to them in the Gospels of ( Mark 12:18-27 ) and ( Luke 20:27-38 ) is their attempting to ridicule the doctrine of the resurrection, which they denied, as they also denied the existence of angels. They are never mentioned in John's Gospel.
There were many Sadducees among the "elders" of the Sanhedrin. They seem, indeed, to have been as numerous as the Pharisees ( Acts 23:6 ). They showed their hatred of Jesus in taking part in his condemnation ( Matthew 16:21 ; Matthew 26:1-3 Matthew 26:59 ; Mark 8:31 ; 15:1 ; Luke 9:22 ; 22:66 ). They endeavoured to prohibit the apostles from preaching the resurrection of Christ ( Acts 2:24 Acts 2:31 Acts 2:32 ; Acts 4:1 Acts 4:2 ; Acts 5:17 Acts 5:24-28 ). They were the deists or sceptics of that age. They do not appear as a separate sect after the destruction of Jerusalem.
Pharisees [N] [B] [H] [S]
separatists (Heb. persahin, from parash, "to separate"). They were probably the successors of the Assideans (i.e., the "pious"), a party that originated in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes in revolt against his heathenizing policy. The first mention of them is in a description by Josephus of the three sects or schools into which the Jews were divided (B.C. 145). The other two sects were the Essenes and the Sadducees. In the time of our Lord they were the popular party ( John 7:48 ). They were extremely accurate and minute in all matters appertaining to the law of Moses ( Matthew 9:14 ; 23:15 ; Luke 11:39 ; 18:12 ). Paul, when brought before the council of Jerusalem, professed himself a Pharisee ( Acts 23:6-8 ; Acts 26:4 Acts 26:5 ).
There was much that was sound in their creed, yet their system of religion was a form and nothing more. Theirs was a very lax morality ( Matthew 5:20 ; Matthew 15:4 Matthew 15:8 ; Matthew 23:3 Matthew 23:14 Matthew 23:23 Matthew 23:25 ; John 8:7 ). On the first notice of them in the New Testament ( Matthew 3:7 ), they are ranked by our Lord with the Sadducees as a "generation of vipers." They were noted for their self-righteousness and their pride ( Matthew 9:11 ; Luke 7:39 ; Luke 18:11 Luke 18:12 ). They were frequently rebuked by our Lord ( Matthew 12:39 ; 16:1-4 ).
From the very beginning of his ministry the Pharisees showed themselves bitter and persistent enemies of our Lord. They could not bear his doctrines, and they sought by every means to destroy his influence among the people.
More correctly Sanhedrin (Gr. synedrion), meaning "a sitting together," or a "council." This word (rendered "council," A.V.) is frequently used in the New Testament ( Matthew 5:22 ; 26:59 ; Mark 15:1 , etc.) to denote the supreme judicial and administrative council of the Jews, which, it is said, was first instituted by Moses, and was composed of seventy men ( Numbers 11:16 Numbers 11:17 ). But that seems to have been only a temporary arrangement which Moses made. This council is with greater probability supposed to have originated among the Jews when they were under the domination of the Syrian kings in the time of the Maccabees. The name is first employed by the Jewish historian Josephus. This "council" is referred to simply as the "chief priests and elders of the people" ( Matthew 26:3 Matthew 26:47 Matthew 26:57 Matthew 26:59 ; Matthew 27:1 Matthew 27:3 Matthew 27:12 Matthew 27:20 , etc.), before whom Christ was tried on the charge of claiming to be the Messiah. Peter and John were also brought before it for promulgating heresy ( Acts 4:1-23 ; 5:17-41 ); as was also Stephen on a charge of blasphemy ( 6:12-15 ), and Paul for violating a temple by-law ( 22:30 ; 23:1-10 ).
The Sanhedrin is said to have consisted of seventy-one members, the high priest being president. They were of three classes (1) the chief priests, or heads of the twenty-four priestly courses ( 1 Chronicles 24 ), (2) the scribes, and (3) the elders. As the highest court of judicature, "in all causes and over all persons, ecclesiastical and civil, supreme," its decrees were binding, not only on the Jews in Palestine, but on all Jews wherever scattered abroad. Its jurisdiction was greatly curtailed by Herod, and afterwards by the Romans. Its usual place of meeting was within the precincts of the temple, in the hall "Gazith," but it sometimes met also in the house of the high priest ( Matthew 26:3 ), who was assisted by two vice-presidents.
These dictionary topics are from
M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain, copy freely.
[N] indicates this entry was also found in Nave's Topical Bible
[S] indicates this entry was also found in Smith's Bible Dictionary
[H] indicates this entry was also found in Hitchcock's Bible Names
Bibliography Information
Easton, Matthew George. "Entry for Herodians". "Easton's Bible Dictionary". .

1.  When Jesus quotes an OT verse applying a parable that should be the driving force in our interpretation.  Also, remember parables generally work toward a practical “big idea.”  Resist the urge to overcomplicate it.
3.  Help your men work through the teaching about life after death and how it pertains to our current lives.  This teaching reminds me of the part in 1 Peter 3.7 about wives being heirs together.  It also opens interesting food for thought about what it means to be a man or woman.
5.  Our doctrinal focus for 2016 is Christology, so it would be good to take some time to work through the truths in this passage.  These comments from Dr. Thomas Constable might be helpful for you.
Jesus’ question about Messiah’s sonship 12:35-37 (cf. Matt. 22:41-46; Luke 20:41-44)
Until now the religious leaders had questioned Jesus about His teaching. Now He asked them about theirs (Matt. 22:41). Matthew’s account of this incident is the longest.
12:35Jesus responded to the situation before Him. He wanted to know the sense in which the teachers of the law believed that Messiah was David’s son. The Old Testament clearly taught that Messiah would be a descendant of David (2 Sam. 7:8-16; et al.). The leaders believed this, but their understanding of Messiah’s relationship to David was only that of another victorious Jewish king from David’s dynasty.
12:36-37Mark focused the readers’ attention on Jesus’ authoritative teaching by omitting the Pharisees’ answer, which Matthew included to discredit them (Matt. 22:42). Here only in the sayings of Jesus did He trace the authority of an Old Testament passage to its divine inspiration. How could Messiah be both lesser than David (his son) and greater than David (his lord) at the same time?
“. . . Jesus uses his superior knowledge of the legal and prophetic writings to justify his actions and to defend against criminal accusations.”[364]
Psalm 110:1 showed that the Messiah was not only David’s junior in age but also his senior in rank.[365] He is the Son of God, God as well as man.
“Only through the Virgin Birth does Jesus possess the dual nature that allows Him to be both David’s Son and David’s Lord.”[366]
Mark’s record of the crowd’s positive response to Jesus’ teaching further stressed its authority. Israel’s religious leaders challenged it, but the multitudes acknowledged it.

1.  Too often the “blessed hope” is a distant reality in our minds.  Use this time to help the men refocus on Christ’s return and the importance of having the resurrection in thought process.
2.  My thought was to separate these three ideas and think about we are using each area to love God.
3.  “The absence of reality is sad enough, but the aggravation of pretense is a deadly sin.” –Samuel Chadwick
4.  We don’t want to harp or berate on this one, but maybe we could all leave this passage rethinking how much we “give to God” and keep for ourselves.
5.  It is essential that we take the time and effort to identify Gospel truths highlighted in Mark.


We have an article that briefly describes the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Herodians.  Since the three groups are mentioned in this passage, I thought it would be helpful.