Monday, July 23, 2018

TBC 18.07.22 Title: Do Not Grumble Against One Another / Text: James 5:7-11

Title:  Do Not Grumble Against One Another
Text: James 5:7-11                                                                 

  • ·       Essentially the attitude of the rich that James condemned was: Get all you can as fast as you can any way you can. In the following pericope he counseled a different attitude to urge his readers, rich and poor, to practice patience.”  --Thomas Constable’s Notes
  • ·       “Following his firey denunciation of the oppressors, James turn to counsel and encourage his afflicted brothern.”-- Edmond Hiebert

 Read James 5:1-12
I. Patience and the Lord’s Return
Therefore be patient, brethren, until the coming of the Lord. See how the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, waiting patiently for it until it receives the early and latter rain.  You also be patient. Establish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord is at hand.
1. Patient: G3114 - μακροθυμέω  - makrothymeō:  to be of a long spirit, not to lose heart
from G3372 - μακρός  - mak-ros': long in distance or time
from G2380 - θυμός - thoo-mos': passion (as if breathing hard):—fierceness, indignation, wrath.
·       Takes a long time to get angry
·       “Be long-suffering, patiently enduring the mistreatment of others, restraining your soul from the passion of anger”[1]
·       Its basic meaning is "long-suffering." This term is used of God's patience with mankind (cf. Rom. 2:4; 1 Pet. 3:20), and is also one of the fruits of the Spirit (cf. Gal. 5:22-23). --Utley
·       Under the constraint of having to suffer unjustly, μακροθυμία comes to be orientated to perseverance, to expectation of the parousia, μακροθυμήσατε ἕως τῆς παρουσίας v. 7, cf. v. 8. In connection with κακοπάθεια, (endurance of) affliction and ὑπομονή, persistence, it comes to suggest a triumphant steadfastness which does not come from the heroic depths of one’s own heart but from certainty of the proximity of the parousia,97 i.e., of the Lord who is Judge (v. 10). Awareness of His nearness—ὁ κριτὴς πρὸ τῶν θυρῶν ἕστηκεν—quenches all angry feelings against opponents and all overhasty sighings and murmurings against brothers.[2]

2. The Farmer waits
The farmer is totally dependent on the weather, over which he has no control, but plows and sows in faith and hope.”  --Utley
5:7–8. Harvest here (cf. v. 4) becomes an image of the day of judgment, as elsewhere in Jewish literature (especially 4 Ezra; Mt 13). Palestine’s autumn rains came in October and November, and winter rains (roughly three-quarters of the year’s rainfall) in December and January. But residents of Syria-Palestine eagerly anticipated the late rains of March and April, which were necessary to ready their late spring and early summer crops. The main wheat harvest there ran from mid-April through the end of May; the barley harvest was in March. The main grain harvest came in June in Greece, July in Italy. Farmers’ families were entirely dependent on good harvests; thus James speaks of the “precious” (or “valuable”—NIV) fruit of the earth.[3]

B. SECOND IMPERATIVE: Establish (your hearts)
1. kjv, nkjv, rsv, esv—establish; Nasb, net, hcsb-- strengthen;  niv, tniv—stand firm; Wuest—stabilize; nlt—take courage
 στηρίζω - stay-rid'-zo: 1. to make stable, place firmly, set fast, fix; 2. to strengthen, make firm; 3. to render constant, confirm, one's mind
“to prop up or support something that is heavy”  --Swindoll
What propped the Lord Jesus up when he suffered injustice?
1 Peter 2
20 For what credit is it if, when you are beaten for your faults, you take it patiently? But when you do good and suffer, if you take it patiently, this is commendable before God.  21 For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps:
22 “Who committed no sin,
Nor was deceit found in His mouth”;
23 who, when He was reviled, did not revile in return; when He suffered, He did not threaten, but committed Himself to Him who judges righteously;

2."for the coming of the Lord is near" This is perfect active indicative which implies He came once, the influence continues, and He will come again (cf. 1 Pet. 4:7). The NT authors (and possibly Jesus Himself, compare Matt. 16:28 with 24:36) expected the consummation of the Second Coming to happen quickly. The imminence of the Second Coming is meant to encourage every generation of believers amidst worldly pressures. The time is uncertain, but the event is sure! Believers live every day in expectation of their Lord's glorious return. The major NT word to all believers is "be ready and be active." –Dr. Bob Utley

This is is literally "until the Parousia" which means "presence" and was used of a royal visit. The other NT terms used for the Second Coming are
               -> epiphaneia, "face to face appearing"
               -> apokalupis, "unveiling"
               -> "the Day of the Lord" and the variations of this phrase   --Utley

II. THIRD IMPERATIVE: Do not grumble against one another
Do not grumble against one another, brethren, lest you be condemned. Behold, the Judge is standing at the door!
A.  The Word
Similar words
NOT--G1111 - γογγύζω - goggyzō "to mutter, murmur, grumble, say anything in a low tone" (Eng., "gong"), an onomatopoeic word, representing the significance by the sound of the word, as in the word "murmur" itself, is used of
·       the laborers in the parable of the householder, Mat 20:11;
·       of the scribes and Pharisees, against Christ, Luke 5:30;
·       of Jews, John 6:41, 43;
·       of the disciples, John 6:61;
·       of the people, John 7:32 (of debating secretly);
·       of the Israelites, 1Cor 10:10 (twice), where it is also used in a warning to believers.
·       G214 alalazo - to wail in oriental style, to howl in a consecrated, semi-liturgical fashion
·       G1145 dakruo - to shed tears, weep silently
·       G2354 threneo - to give formal expression to grief, to sing a dirge
·       G2799 klaio - to weep audibly, cry as a child
·       G3602 odurmos - to give verbal expression to grief, to lament
·       G4727 stenazo - to express grief by inarticulate or semi-articulate sounds, to groan

G4727 stenazo:
1. stenázō means “to sigh,” “to groan,” stenagmós means “sigh” or “sighing,”[4]
2. (a figurative extension of meaning of
στενάζωa ‘to groan, to sigh,’ 25.143) to complain in an intensive and excessive manner—‘to complain strongly.’[5]
nkjv, rsv, esv, niv, tniv, net—grumble;  nasb, Wuest, hcsbcomplain;  kjv,--grudge
“The verb (stenazete) does not mean “mummer” but “sigh” or “groan” because of undesirable circumstances or oppression under which the individual suffers.  Whereas the primary reference is to the inner feelings of loud and bitter complaints, it involves a feeling of criticism and faultfinding directed against others.  The personal feeling reflects itself in smoldering resentment that may display itself in an antagonistic expression of bitter groans.”--Edmond Hiebert

B.The associated concepts
1. “against one another”  “brothers”, exasperation or jealousy with family.
2. be condemned 
·       Believers’ sins are forgiven, but our actions (works) will be judged.
·       It is a shallow kind of Chritianity that, seeing only God’s grace in the Godpel, forgets inevitable judgment.”—Frank Gaebelein in The Practical Epistle of James
3. "the Judge is standing right at the door"
·       The emphasis is on the immediacy of the Second Coming and its related judgment.”  Utley
·       The comfort to the suffering is also a warning to the sinning.

III. The Perseverance of Job and the End Intended by the Lord
10 My brethren, take the prophets, who spoke in the name of the Lord, as an example of suffering and patience. 11 Indeed we count them blessed who endure. You have heard of the perseverance of Job and seen the end intended by the Lord—that the Lord is very compassionate and merciful.
A.The prophets
Suffering G2552 - kakopatheia κακοπάθεια kak-op-ath'-i-ah; from a compound of bad and suffer; hardship:—suffering affliction.
Same as verse 7. à Patience G3115 - makrothymia - μακροθυμία - mak-roth-oo-mee'-ah; similar to v. 7; longanimity, i.e. (objectively) forbearance or (subjectively) fortitude:—longsuffering, patience.
Endure G5281 - hypomonē - ὑπομονή hoop-om-on-ay'; From ὑπό under and μένω abide; cheerful (or hopeful) endurance, constancy:—enduring, patience, patient continuance (waiting).
emphasis on "remaining under a load."

B. Example of Job
James 5:11 reminds us of You have heard of
1.  the perseverance of Job and   
·       In studying the experience of Job, it is important to remember that Job did not know what was going on “behind the scenes” between God and Satan. Job’s friends accused him of being a sinner and a hypocrite. [6]
·       Job is numbered with Noah and Daniel in Ezek. 14:14, 20.[7])
2.  seen the end intended by the Lord
intended” Genesis 50:20  “You meant evil against me, but God meant it for good, in order to...”
What was good about Job’s end?
1. MATERIALLY:  Chapter 39 rehearses how God tangibly blesses Job generously in his family and businesses.  --the restoration of his family and vast wealth[8]
Job confesses that he has learned a fundamental lesson about the majestic sovereignty and goodness of God[9]
3. GLORY TO GOD: Satan challenged the Lord and alleged that Job did not loyalty love Him because of who He was, but just because of the blessing the Lord gave Job.  When Job stayed true to the Lord he magnified Christ.
3.  that the Lord is very compassionate and merciful.
What did Job’s story mean to the believers James wrote to, and what does it mean to us today? It means that some of the trials of life are caused directly by satanic opposition. God permits Satan to try His children, but He always limits the extent of the enemy’s power (Job 1:12; 2:6). When you find yourself in the fire, remember that God keeps His gracious hand on the thermostat! “But He knoweth the way that I take: when He hath tried me, I shall come forth as gold” (Job 23:10).[10]

Nehemiah 9:17
They refused to obey,
And they were not mindful of Your wonders
That You did among them.
But they hardened their necks,
And [
d]in their rebellion
They appointed a leader
To return to their bondage.
But You are God,
Ready to pardon,
Gracious and merciful,
Slow to anger,
Abundant in kindness,
And did not forsake them.

Psalm 86
14 O God, the proud have risen against me,
And a mob of violent men have sought my life,
And have not set You before them.
15 But You, O Lord, are a God full of compassion, and gracious,
Longsuffering and abundant in mercy and truth.
16 Oh, turn to me, and have mercy on me!
Give Your strength to Your servant,
And save the son of Your maidservant.
17 Show me a sign for good,
That those who hate me may see it and be ashamed,
Because You, Lord, have helped me and comforted me.

Joel 2:
12 “Now, therefore,” says the Lord,
“Turn to Me with all your heart,
With fasting, with weeping, and with mourning.”
13 So rend your heart, and not your garments;
Return to the Lord your God,
For He is gracious and merciful,
Slow to anger, and of great kindness;
And He relents from doing harm.
14 Who knows if He will turn and relent,
And leave a blessing behind Him—
A grain offering and a drink offering
For the Lord your God?

Exodus 34:
Now the Lord descended in the cloud and stood with him [Moses] there [on Mt. Sinai], and proclaimed the name of the LordAnd the Lord passed before him and proclaimed, “The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abounding in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, by no means clearing the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children and the children’s children to the third and the fourth generation.”
So Moses made haste and bowed his head toward the earth, and worshiped.

[1] Kenneth S. Wuest, The New Testament: An Expanded Translation (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1961), Jas 5:7–8.
97 The στηρίξατε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν is controlled by the ὅτι ἡ παρουσία τοῦ κυρίου ἤγγικεν of v. 8. Cf. Hck. Jk., ad loc.
[2] Johannes Horst, “Μακροθυμία, Μακροθυμέω, Μακρόθυμος, Μακροθύμως,” ed. Gerhard Kittel, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, and Gerhard Friedrich, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964–), 385.
[3] Craig S. Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993), Jas 5:7–8.
[4] Gerhard Kittel, Gerhard Friedrich, and Geoffrey William Bromiley, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 1985), 1076.
[5] Johannes P. Louw and Eugene Albert Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains (New York: United Bible Societies, 1996), 432.
[6] Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, vol. 2 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1996), 380.
[7] D. A. Carson, “James,” in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI;  Nottingham, UK: Baker Academic;  Apollos, 2007), 1011.
[8] D. A. Carson, “James,” in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI;  Nottingham, UK: Baker Academic;  Apollos, 2007), 1011.
[9] D. A. Carson, “James,” in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI;  Nottingham, UK: Baker Academic;  Apollos, 2007), 1011.
[10] Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, vol. 2 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1996), 380.