Wednesday, March 7, 2012

2 Samuel 20-23

2 Samuel
20.2  Israel deserted David...  How does it work that three verses ago they were clamoring to get him back as king?
20.6  a page out of Ahithophel's playbook.
20.8  surely this wasn't a common problem and if Amasa knew Joab and was thinking he wouldn't have been surprised by Joab's next move.
   Joab: Defense Minister
   Benaiah: Secret Service
   Adoram: Finance Minister
   Jehoshaphat: Secretary of State (similar to our states not federal gov.)
   Sheva: Secretary
   Zadak and Abiathar: Priesthood ministers
   Ira: Prime Minister
21.6  hang them before the Lord in Gebeah...  This seems like an odd thing to do "before the LORD" and I wonder why these Amorites would be so concerned with Yahweh?
21.17  I wonder if this final revoking of David's "fighting license" because he had just lost his fighting edge might have been a consideration in his not being with the troops in chapter eleven and being asked to stay behind in chapter eighteen (v.3-4).
22.21-25  I have never understood how David could pray something like this (especially in light of some of his rather spectacular sins).  I certainly couldn't.
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23.8  Josheb-Basshebeth or Adino
23.9  Eleazar
23.11  Shammah
23.18  Abishai
23.20  Benaiah
23.22  among three... This is more than three any way I count it, which makes K&D's comments helpful.  Some of these numbers seem to be nominal rather than precise.  (See verses 23 and 39)
2 Samuel 23:8-39 
The following list of David's heroes we also find in 1 Chron 11:10-47, and expanded at the end by sixteen names (1Ch_11:41-47), and attached in 1Ch_11:10 to the account of the conquest of the fortress of Zion by the introduction of a special heading. According to this heading, the heroes named assisted David greatly in his kingdom, along with all Israel, to make him king, from which it is evident that the chronicler intended by this heading to justify his appending the list to the account of the election of David as king over all the tribes of Israel (1Ch_11:1), and of the conquest of Zion, which followed immediately afterwards. In every other respect the two lists agree with one another, except that there are a considerable number of errors of the text, more especially in the names, which are frequently corrupt in both texts, to that the true reading cannot be determined with certainty. The heroes enumerated are divided into three classes. The first class consists of three, viz., Jashobeam, Eleazar, and Shammah, of whom certain brave deeds are related, by which they reached the first rank among David's heroes (2Sa_23:8-12). They were followed by Abishai and Benaiah, who were in the second class, and who had also distinguished themselves above the rest by their brave deeds, though they did not come up to the first three (2Sa_23:18-23). The others all belonged to the third class, which consisted of thirty-two men, of whom no particular heroic deeds are mentioned (vv. 24-39). Twelve of these, viz., the five belonging to the first two classes and seven of the third, were appointed by David commanders of the twelve detachments into which he divided the army, each detachment to serve for one month in the year (1 Chron 27). These heroes, among whom we do not find Joab the commander-in-chief of the whole of the forces, were the king's aides-de-camp, and are called in this respect הַשָּׁלִשִׁי (2Sa_23:8), though the term הַשְּׁלשִׁים (the thirty, 2Sa_23:13, 2Sa_23:23, 2Sa_23:24) was also a very customary one, as their number amounted to thirty in a round sum. It is possible that at first they may have numbered exactly thirty; for, from the very nature of the case, we may be sure than in the many wars in which David was engaged, other heroes must have arisen at different times, who would be received into the corps already formed. This will explain the addition of sixteen names in the Chronicles, whether the chronicler made us of a different list from that employed by the author of the books before us, and one belonging to a later age, or whether the author of our books merely restricted himself to a description of the corps in its earlier condition.  --Commentary on the Old Testament (10 vol.) by C.F. Keil and Franz Delitzsch

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