Thursday, July 5, 2012

Proverbs 12 Speech and Deeds Part 1.

4. Two Subunits on Speech and Deeds (12:1-28)
     (a) The First Subunit (1-14)  Introduction (1-3), Speech and One's Household (4-7), Deeds and Property (8-12), Janus Conclusion: Words and Deeds (13-14)
     (b) The Second Unit (12.15-28) Introduction (15), Wise and Foolish Speech (16-23), Diligent Work and Good speech (24-27), Conclusion (28) 

"Chapter twelve consists of two subunits of proverbs of equal length dealing with speech and deeds (vv. 1-14, 15-28).  Each half begins with an educational aphorism contrasting the teachableness of the wise with the incorrigibility of the fool  (vv. 1-15) to encourage the son to accept the teachings that follow.  Each half concludes with a synthetic proverb--a rare phenomenon in Collection IIA...
Each subunit is divided into partial subunits that commence with an aphorism broadly characterizing the righteous and wicked and is drawn to a conclusion with aphorisms that affirm the permanence of the former and the impermanence of the latter: vv.1-3, 4-7, 8-12 (vv. 13-14 are a concluding janus), and vv. 16-19, 20-23, and 24-28."
       ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
Introduction (vv. 1-3)
1a                                                But     
Whoever                                  he who
loves instruction                 hates correction
loves knowledge,                 is stupid. 
1 An educational statement:
1loves...  "...the parents strike at the passions that motivate behavior (see 1.22).  Their rhetoric and moral persuasion alter the child's religious affection to become a lover of instruction and knowledge."
       ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
1stupid...  "Ignoramus (["senseless, NIV] bā'ar) "refers to a stupid man who does not have the rationality that differentiates men from animals (Ps. 73.22). (Chou-Wee Pan, NIDOTTE, 1:691, s.v. b'r.)
       ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
2                                          (1)  But
A good man                   (2)  a man of wicked intentions
obtains favor                 (4)  will condemn.
from the LORD,               (3)  He[the LORD]
2  An ethical statement:
2wicked intentions...  "...the opposite of a "a good person," designates the brute who, out of his own heart's alienation form God, devises evil stratagems to advantage himself by disadvantaging the community."
       ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
3                                         (1)   But
A man                               (2)  the root
is not established         (4)  cannot be moved.
by wickedness,              (3)  of the righteous
3  A religious statement:
3b  the root...  "...the incomplete horticultural metaphor root (sores) evokes the imagery of a tree (cf. 11.28, 30) and connotes that the Holy One is the source of a flourishing existence (cf. Judg. 5.14; Job 14.7-9; Isa. 11.1).  If the root remains, it will flourish..."         ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
First Subunit: Speech and One's Household  (vv.4-7)
"The first partial subunit of the body begins with a single-line general characterization, contrasting the two kinds of wives..."        ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
4                                              But
An excellent wife              she who causes shame
is the crown                         is like rottenness
of her husband,                  in his bones. 
imprecise antithesis  -  "Marriage is no light matter; the wife either makes or breaks a man in his home and in the community (see 14.1; 18.22; 19.14; 31:10-31)."       ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
4excellent wife...  "The modern sense of virtuous (AV, RV) does not justice to the Heb. term's root idea of strength and worth (Prov. 31.10 cf. the full-length portrait in the ensuing verses there).  The modern phrase, 'sh has a lot in her', expresses something of the meaning."    ---Kidner in TOTC
4his bones...  "his basic physical and psychical structure."      ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
Verses 5-7 are linked by the catchwords "righteous/upright" and "wicked"...
5                                            But
The thoughts                    the counsels
of the righteous          of the wicked
are right,                            are deceitful. 
5thoughts...  "Thoughts mean primarily 'intentions', 'plans'.  Moffatt puts it well: 'The aims of a good man are honourable: the plans of a bad man are underhand.' "  ---Kidner in TOTC
6                                                          But
The words                                        the mouth
of the wicked                                 of the upright
are, "Lie in wait for blood,"       will deliver them. 
6a Lie in wait for blood...  "The literal sense is best: i.e. '...are a lying-in-wait for blood'; in other words, '...are an ambush'.  The second line ends, lit., '...delivers them' (i.e. the upright themselves), and in this answer to the first line there may be a glance at the thought of 1.18, that your trap tends to trap you.  Alternatively the point may be that sincerity is the best defense against slander."  ---Kidner in TOTC
6b  them...  In second cl.  the Heb. has saves them, in which the them (which has no antecedent in the first cl.) must refer to the upright.  Such a reference, however, is not favored by the parallelism: the wicked, in the first cl., attack others, and the upright in the second cl., should save others; good men, moreover, are, in Pr., saved not by their words, but by their righteousness (10.2; 11.4, 6)."  --Toy in ICC
7                                                                          But
- - -                                                                      the house of
The wicked                                                    the righteous
are overthrown                                            - - -
and are no more,                                          will stand.
7  The wicked's destiny corresponds to their deeds.
7b  house...  I wonder it the proverb means to indicate that the righteous help not only their own self, but also those in there household, or those under their influence/protection.
7will stand...  "The metaphor stands firm implies that it is built on a firm foundation well able to weather the storms that threaten to demolish it (10.25;, 30; 12.3, 12; Matt. 7.24-27)."    ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
Second Subunit: Deeds and Property  (vv. 8-12)
8                                                        (1)  But
A man                                             (2)  he who
will be commended                   (4)  will be despised
according to his wisdom,        (3)  is of a perverse heart . 
8commended...  Sometimes the wise, though condemned while they lived, receive praise after death (Matt. 23.29-32), and on his return the LORD will certainly commend the wise (Matt. 5.11-12; Luke12.42-44; 2 Cor. 18.18)."    ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT    
8b  perverse...  "Heb “crooked of heart”; cf. NAB, NLT “a warped mind” (NIV similar). The noun לֵב (lev, “heart”) is an attributive genitive. It functions as a metonymy of association for “mind; thoughts” (BDB 524 s.v. 3) and “will; volition” (BDB 524 s.v. 4). He does not perceive things as they are, so he makes all the wrong choices. His thinking is all wrong."       ---NET Bible translation notes
9  Better                            Than
is the one who                 he who
is slighted                          honors himself
but has a servant,          but lacks bread.  
9  Substance over show.  
"This verse gives a specific application of the generalization of v. 8."      ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
9honors...  "... public praise that conceals poverty (cf. 15.17; 30.8-9)."   ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT   

9lacks bread...  "The antithetical parallel, "lacking bread" (i.e. the lack of the basics to sustain life), suggests that having a slave is judged a necessity for life (cf. 30.8-9),  In early Israel the value of a slave was 30 shekels (cf. Exod. 21.32; cf. also 2 Macc 8.11; Matt. 27.3) and lay within reach of one in modest circumstances.  Footnote: A slave was frequently a defaulting debtor or poor person who had no alternative but to enslave himself.  "    ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT    
A righteous man regards the life of his animal, 
But the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel.  
10  This verse seems to emphasize the expansive reach of a righteous man's goodness that extends even to his animals and the contrasting utter lack of kindness of the wicked whose best actions are cruel.
> The topic of sensible wealth (v. 8) now shifts from the well-earned prosperity of the righteous ... to caring for, not exploiting, the worker(v. 10)."   ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
10his animal...   "Providing for the needs of the working ox functions in the law as a proverb for taking care of one's workers (Deut. 25.4; 1 Cor. 9.9-10)."   ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
10mercies...  "Attributing "mercy," however, to the wicked, who by nature neither fear God nor help others, is sarcastic."    ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT    
11                                                          But
He who                                               he who
tills his land                                      follows frivolity
- - -                                                        is devoid of understanding. 
will be satisfied with bread,       - - -     
11  "The economic proverbs now turn from one's workers to one's own work"    ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT  
11b  frivolity...  "In view are ventures or gambles that do not involve hard work and/or contribute to the common wealth, not merely to idleness."   ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT    
The wicked covet the catch of evil men, 
But the root of the righteous yields fruit. 
12  The empty desires for the fleeting rewards of evil versus the nourishing substance of deep roots.
12a the catch...  "This line is difficult to interpret. BDB connects the term מְצוֹד (mÿtsod) to II מָצוֹד which means (1) “snare; hunting-net” and (2) what is caught: “prey” (BDB 844-45 s.v. II מָצוֹד). This would function as a metonymy of cause for what the net catches: the prey. Or it may be saying that the wicked get caught in their own net, that is, reap the consequences of their own sins. On the other hand, HALOT 622 connects מְצוֹד (mÿtsod) to II מְצוּדָה (mÿtsudah, “mountain stronghold”; cf. NAB “the stronghold of evil men will be demolished”). The LXX translated it as: “The desires of the wicked are evil.” The Syriac has: “The wicked desire to do evil.” The Latin expands it: “The desire of the wicked is a defense of the worst [things, or persons].” C. H. Toy suggests emending the text to read “wickedness is the net of bad men” (Proverbs [ICC], 250)."         ---NET Bible translation notes
12a the catch...   " "Fortification," a military metaphor for security, provides a better parallel to "root...endure," an agricultural metaphor for security (see 12.3).  "Net" a hunting metaphor, provides a better parallel to "root...sprouts," since both metaphors pertain to production, the first by robbery and the second by producing continually.  The climatic parallels in VV. 3 and 7 pertain to security, not production, favoring the meaning "fortification."    ---Bruce Waltke in NICOT    
Janus Conclusion: Words and Deeds  (vv.13-14)

13                                                                  But
The wicked                                                the righteous
is ensnared                                                - - -
by the transgression of his lips,       - - -
- - -                                                                will come through trouble. 
13 ensnared...  "Similar puns occur with "trap" and "evil person" in 18.7 and 29.6; in all three the schemer is caught by his own schemes (see 1.16).  The sequential and (way) favors the meaning "set for an evil person: because it implies that as a result of striking the evil man the righteous escapes."
13his lips...  "Heb “transgression of the lips.” The noun “lips” is a genitive of specification and it functions as a metonymy of cause for speech: sinful talk or sinning by talking. J. H. Greenstone suggests that this refers to litigation; the wicked attempt to involve the innocent (Proverbs, 131)."       ---NET Bible translation notes
A man will be satisfied with good by the fruit of his mouth, 
And the recompense of a man's hands will be rendered to him. 

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