Saturday, December 10, 2011

Josh 1-7

1.5  I will never leave thee nor forsake thee...  The meaning of the Hebrew word for "leave" adds some depth to this phrase that is quoted in Hebrews 13.5.
 רָפָה [raphah /raw·faw/] v. A primitive root; TWOT 2198; GK 8332; 46 occurrences; AV translates as “feeble” six times, “fail” four times, “weaken” four times, “go” four times, “alone” four times, “idle” three times, “stay” three times, “slack” three times, “faint” twice, “forsake” twice, “abated” once, “cease” once, and translated miscellaneously nine times. 1 to sink, relax, sink down, let drop, be disheartened. 1A (Qal). 1A1 to sink down. 1A2 to sink, drop. 1A3 to sink, relax, abate. 1A4 to relax, withdraw. 1B (Niphal) idle (participle). 1C (Piel) to let drop. 1D (Hiphil). 1D1 to let drop, abandon, relax, refrain, forsake. 1D2 to let go. 1D3 to refrain, let alone. 1D4 to be quiet. 1E (Hithpael) to show oneself slack. Strong's # 7503
Strong, J. (1996). The exhaustive concordance of the Bible : Showing every word of the text of the common English version of the canonical books, and every occurrence of each word in regular order. (electronic ed.). Ontario: Woodside Bible Fellowship.
1.6 strong and courageous...
 חָזַק (ḥāzaq) be(come) strong, strengthen, prevail, harden, be courageous, be sore (meaning be severe).  TWOT # 636 
The Qal form, used eighty-two times, means to “be strong” or “become strong.” In most cases it can be so translated, but often the variety of contexts encourages or necessitates a variety of renditions. Most often the word is used for strength in battle (I Kgs 20:23). The admonition to be strong in combat may simply be an exhortation to be of good courage (and is so translated in II Sam 10:12).
In Gen 41:56 “strong” is used in the sense of “severe” (RSV; KJV and ASV “sore”) in reference to a famine. Similarly a battle may be “severe” (II Kgs 3:26). “To be stronger than” in context comes to mean “prevail,” as the word of David “prevailed” against Joab (II Sam 24:4), David against the Philistine (I Sam 17:50), and Jotham over the Ammonites (II Chr 27:5). When used of Pharoah’s heart the meaning is “harden” (Ex 7:13f.).
[The hardening of Pharoah’s heart is an old problem, one that is more theological than linguistic. The verb ḥāzaq is used twelve times in the narrative (Ex 4–14), mostly with the Lord as the agent, but four times in the passive or stative sense (“Pharaoh’s heart was hardened”). Also, the verb kāhēd is used five times, both with the Lord as the agent, with Pharaoh as the agent, and in the passive sense. The verb qāšâ is used once with the Lord as the agent. There is no discernible difference here in the usage of these words. It is clear that Pharaoh was an unrepentant sinner at the start (chapter 5). It is perhaps enough to point this out and remark that all of God’s hardening of an obstinate sinner was judicial and done that God’s deliverance should be the more memorable. And this, too, was in God’s plan (Ex 9:16), though it is also inexplicably true that Pharaoh sinned freely and was therefore terribly guilty (cf. Acts 4:25–28). R.L.H.]
Other resultant meanings include “be sure” (Deut 12:23), “be steadfast” (Josh 23:6, RSV), “catch hold” (II Sam 18:9, Absalom’s head in the oak; the causative of this is common usage in the Hiphil), “recover” (Isa 39:1, Hezekiah from sickness), “stout,” (of peoples’ words against God, Mal 3:13).
The Qal form of the verb is used twice (II Chr 28:20; Isa 28:22) in the Piel sense of “strengthen.”
Weber, C. P. (1999). 636 חָזַק. In R. L. Harris, G. L. Archer, Jr. & B. K. Waltke (Eds.), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (R. L. Harris, G. L. Archer, Jr. & B. K. Waltke, Ed.) (electronic ed.) (276). Chicago: Moody Press.

אָמֵץ (ʾāmēṣ) be stout, strong, alert, bold, be solid, hard.  TWOT # 117
This verb is found forty-one times in the OT. Ugaritic attests a parallel to the term.
In the Piel stem the verb can be rendered “make firm,” “strengthen,” “secure,” “harden” (one’s mind). The Hiphil stem manifests the force of “exhibit strength,” “feel strong.” In the Hithpael stem the translation is “strengthen oneself,” “persist in,” “prove superior to,” “make oneself alert.” The first occurrence of the verb is in Gen 25:23 in the Qal stem. The Lord revealed to Rebekah, before her sons were born, that they would be progenitors of two nations, and that one would be stronger than the other. David sang a song of deliverance for the mercy which the Lord granted in delivering him from Saul, an enemy stronger than he (II Sam 22:18 with its parallel in Ps 18:17 [H 18]). David expressed a similar sentiment in his prayer in the cave (Psa 142:6 [H 7]). In the days of Jeroboam’s revolt against the Davidic dynasty, the Lord defeated the northern kingdom and its forces at the hand of Abijah, and the Judean army “prevailed” despite a well laid ambush (II Chr 13:18).

As a parallel to the more usual verb ḥāzaq, the word is employed repeatedly in God’s charge to Joshua to be strong for the arduous tasks he assumed at the death of Moses (Josh 1:6,7,9,18). Moses spoke similar words of encouragement to his understudy (Deut 31:7, 23). He charged the people in like manner (Deut 31:6).Weber, C. P. (1999). 636 חָזַק. In R. L. Harris, G. L. Archer, Jr. & B. K. Waltke (Eds.), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (R. L. Harris, G. L. Archer, Jr. & B. K. Waltke, Ed.) (electronic ed.) (276). Chicago: Moody Press.
1.17 affirmation and pressure in one verse
2.5  Sanctify yourselves...  I wonder what they did to sanctify themselves.  Was there some ceremony, some process they went through get there, or is this just telling them to have this attitude?
2.11  Lord of all the earth...  instead of the Lord your God.  Thinking about the word choice.
4.24  The peoples will know and Israel would fear the Lord.  Have you gone from knowing to fearing/
5.9  This day I have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from you...
After all the males were circumcised … the LORD acknowledged the completed task by declaring, Today I have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from you. Since the Israelites were slaves in Egypt, they did not practice circumcision until they were about to leave. No doubt the Egyptians prohibited the practice since it was reserved for their own priests and upper-class citizens. “The reproach of Egypt” may refer to the Egyptians’ mocking the Israelites for not having possessed the land of Canaan.  --Donald K. Campbell
Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-). The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Jos 5:8–9). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
7.6  until evening...  That was probably a long time.  I'm not sure we think we have that much time to wait anymore.  I assume that there was some significance to waiting till evening, maybe an evening sacrifice? 
7.13  Sanctify yourselves...  Apparently an action that is repeated as needed.

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