Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Romans 8.18-25 Prep Notes

1. Structure: What is the structure of your Biblical text? How should that structure shape the emphasis and/or outline of your talk?

I am looking, as I study, for an Old Testament passage to read for the Scripture reading that might provide a good introduction and background.
I. Introduction 
- Segway to the passage from a current event, etc...
- Review the larger and especially the chapter context to place it in the flow of the context.
- Giver sermon overview

II. Comparison of suffering and glory (18)
A. Context of suffering
B. Glory to be revealed
III. Expectation of the creation  (19-22)
A. Presently subjected and groaning
B. Will be delivered
IV. Expectation of believers (23-25) (Spirit, adoption, redemption of body)
A. Groaning
B. Hoping
V. Conclusion

2. Literary Context: How does the literary context of this book inform the meaning of your specific text?
Chapter theme: 
> The chapter begins with "no condemnation" to those who are in Christ.  The close and safe connection of the believer with Christ.  
> The chapter ends with the elequent declaration that nothing can separate the believer from the log of God in Jesus Christ. 
> Verses 18-25 give the grounds for maintaining our hope for eternal life with Christ in the midst of suffering. 
3. Melodic Line: How does the main theme of the entire book (or melodic line) inform the meaning of your specific text?
Book theme:  "The Obedience of Faith"  
This passage reinforces the hope of the believer's future to spur his persistent faith.
4. Gospel Context: What is the relationship between your text and the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ?

This passage is all about our full salvation emphasizing our final glorification which should give us heart as we journey through the sanctification process.
5. Theme:  What is the theme of your text? [The theme is one, concise sentence stating the ‘big idea’ of the passage.]
The hope of future glorification sustains persistent faith (waiting) during our present suffering.
6. Aim: What is the aim of your text? [The aim is the author’s intended application of the text—consider the relevant implication of this text for the lives of the readers.]
I want people leave with a strong sense of the glory of their final redemption and hearts full of the hope and anticipation for that time that will carry them through the tough patches.

"This passage develops the reference to suffering and glory in v. 17b, continues the overall theme of assurance that dominates chap. 8 ..."
"the glory that shall be revealed in us"  and "these shall be glorified"  form an inclusio.
"He assumes the fact of suffering as the dark backdrop against which the glorious future promised to the Christian shines with bright intensity." 
"All this is summed up in Paul's words in v. 24a: "we were saved in hope": "saved" --- a past, definitive action; "in hope" --- the state in which we now live, waiting with anticipation and assurance for the culmination of God's plan for us and the world." 
8.18  cf. 1 Cor. 4.17
to be revealed...  "In these verses [19-25], therefore, Paul supports and develops "to be revealed" in v. 18 by showing that both creation and Christians (1) suffer at present from a sense of incompleteness and even frustration; and (2) eagerly yearn for a culminating transformation."
8.19  earnest expectation...  "suggests the picture of a person craning his or her neck to see what is coming."
all creation... "Paul's insistence in v. 20 that the "vanity" to which this creation was subjected was not of its own choice appears to exclude all people, not just unbelievers." 
revealing...  "the status we now have in preliminary form and in hiddenness will be brought to its final stage and made publicly evident."
8.20  futility...  "Humanity's fall into sin marred the "goodness" of God's creation..."  Bruce thinks that Paul might also see this subjection in terms of the rule of evil spiritual forces over the cosmos, but this idea is not clear.
8.21   cf. John 16.20b-22
8.22  groans...   Paul uses the simple verb "groan" in 8.23 and in 2 cor. 5.2 and 4, to depict the "groans of eschatological anticipation."                   
> but we also...  Now he shows how believers share this same eager hope. 
> groans...  "This attitude does not involve anxiety about whether we will finally experience the deliverance God has promised --- for Paul allows of no doubts on the score (cf. vv. 28-30) --- but frustration as the remaining moral and physical infirmities that are inevitably a part of this period between justification and glorification ( see 2 Cor. 5.2, 4)... "
> first fruits...  "The word alludes to both the beginning of a process and the unbreakable connection between its beginning and the end."
> of the Spirit... "But does Paul mean to say that Christians groan because we possess the Spirit as the "first fruits" or that we groan even though we have the Spirit as "first fruits"? But Both make good sense in this context and fit Paul's theology of the Spirit.  However, the fact that Paul refers to "the first fruits of the spirit" rather than simply the spirit shows that he is thinking of the Spirit's role in anticipating and pledging the completion of salvation rather than as the agent of present blessing."   "...it is because we possess the Spirit as the first installment and pledge of our complete salvation that we groan..."
> adoption...  "...this adoption is incomplete and partial until we are finally made like the Son of God himself (v. 29).  This final element in our adoption is "the redemption of our bodies."   "...the 'already--not yet' tension..."
perseverance...  "The word suggests the connotation of "bearing up" under intense pressure."


8.19  earnest expectation...  "The word "earnest expectation" are apokaradokia, "only here and in Philippians 1.20. From apo away, kara the head, dokein to watch.  A watching with the head erect and outstreached.  Hence a waiting in suspense."
"Manifestation" is apokalupsis, "an uncovering, a laying bare."  That is, the non-rational creation, subject to the curse put upon it because of man's sin, is expectantly waiting for the glorification of the saints, that it also may be delivered from the curse."

8.20  futility...  "Vanity" is matalios, "idle, resultless, futile, aimless."  It describes something that does not measure up to that for which is intended."

8.21  glorious liberty of...   As to the translation, "liberty of the glory," Vincent says, "Liberty is one of the elements of the glorious state and is dependent upon it.  The glory is that of verse 18."
ylt,wet--the liberty of the glory of; kjv, nkjv--the glorious liberty of; nasb, esv--freedom of the glory of; niv84, net--glorious freedom of; nlt--the freedom and glory of

8.22  for... "The word "for" introduces the proof of the hope, not of the bondage."
8.23  adoption...  Regarding adoption, Denney says; "They have already received adoption, and as led by the Spirit are sons of God; but only when their mortal bodies have been quickened, and the corruptible, has put on incorruption, will they possess all that sonship involves. 

Vincent - Vincent, M. R. (2002). Word studies in the New Testament (Ro 8:24). Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
8.19   creature...  (κτσewς).  The word may signify either the creative act (as 1.20), or the thing created (Mark 10.6; 13.19; 16.15; Col 1.23; Heb. 4.14).  Here in the later sense.  The interpretations vary: 1.  The whole unredeemed creation, rational and irrational.  2. All creation, except humanity.  The point of difference is the inclusion or exclusion of humanity.  The second explanation is preferable, the non-rational creation viewed collectively, animate and inanimate.  Equivalent to all nature.
8.20  futility (vanity)...   "Μάταιος expresses aimlessness. All which has not God for the true end of its being is μάταιος. Pindar describes the vain man as one who hunts bootless things with fruitless hopes. Plato (“Laws,” 735) of labor to no purpose. Ezek. 13:6, “prophesying vain things (μάταια),” things which God will not bring to pass. Compare Tit. 3:9. Here, therefore, the reference is to a perishable and decaying condition, separate from God, and pursuing false ends."
not willingly but because of Him who subjected it...  By reason of Him who hath subjected (διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα). God, not Adam nor Satan. Paul does not use the grammatical form which would express the direct agency of God, by Him who hath subjected, but that which makes God’s will the occasion rather than the worker — on account of Him. Adam’s sin and not God’s will was the direct and special cause of the subjection to vanity. The supreme will of God is thus removed “to a wider distance from corruption and vanity” (Alford).
8.21  Glorious liberty...   (ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης). Better, and more literally, as Rev., liberty of the glory. Liberty is one of the elements of the glorious state and is dependent upon it. The glory is that in ver. 18. The Greek student will note the accumulation of genitives, giving solemnity to the passage.
8.22  Groaneth — travaileth together...   (συστενάζει — συνωδίνει). Both only here in the New Testament. The simple verb ὠδίνω to travail, occurs Gal. 4:19, 27; Apoc. 12:2; and the kindred noun ὠδίν birth-pang, in Matthew and Mark, Acts, and 1 Thess. 5:3. See on Mark 13:9; Acts 2:24. Together refers to the common longing of all the elements of the creation, not to its longing in common with God’s children.

8.24  by hope... (τῇ ἐλπίδι). Better in hope. We are saved by faith. See on 1 Pet. 1:3.

AT Robertson - Robertson, A. (1997). Word Pictures in the New Testament (Ro 8:24). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems.

8:24  we were saved in this hope
...  (τῃ γαρ ἐλπιδι ἐσωθημεν [tēi gar elpidi esōthēmen]). First aorist passive indicative of σωζω [sōzō]. The case of ἐλπιδι [elpidi] is not certain, the form being the same for locative, instrumental and dative. Curiously enough either makes good sense in this context: “We were saved in hope, by hope, for hope” (of the redemption of the body).
8:25  with patience...   (δἰ ὑπομονης [di’ hupomonēs]). Paul repeats the verb ἀπεκδεχομαι [apekdechomai] of verse 23.

Keener, C. S., & InterVarsity Press. (1993). The IVP Bible background commentary : New Testament (Ro 8:22). Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.

8:22    In Exodus, God’s people “sighed” or “groaned,” and their groaning under hardship was an unintended prayer that hastened God’s redemption of them (Ex 2:23).

8:23–25  “First fruits” was the actual beginning, the first installment, of the Palestinian harvest (Lev 23:10); the presence of the Spirit in believers is thus the actual beginning of the future world. Believers had experienced redemption (Rom 3:24) and adoption (8:15), but still awaited the fullness of that experience at the resurrection of their bodies by the Spirit (8:11).

Manners and Customs -
Freeman, J. M., & Chadwick, H. J. (1998). Manners & customs of the Bible (Rev. ed.].) (537). North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos Publishers.

8:15 Adoption...  Among the Greeks and Romans, when a man had no son, he was permitted to adopt one even though not related. He might, if he chose, adopt one of his slaves as a son. The adopted son took the name of the father, and was in every respect regarded and treated as a son. Among the Romans there were two parts to the act of adoption: one a private arrangement between the parties, and the other a formal public declaration of the fact. It is thought by some that the former is referred to in this verse, and the latter in verse 23, where the apostle speaks of “waiting for the adoption.” The servant has been adopted privately, but he is waiting for a formal public declaration of the fact.

Learning to Walk by Grace: Bible Study Guide by Charles Swindoll
"...the Apostle Paul basically deals with two in verses 16-27:  What perspective should we have on our sufferings?  And what help does God give us for persevering through them?  The answers found in this passage can provide comfort and courage to any believer who suffers, no matter how intensely."
I. The Presence of Suffering
    A. Certainty and Purpose Declared (vv. 16-17)
If  indeed we suffer with Him...  "The Greek terms translated if indeed do not convey the idea of "perhaps" or "maybe."  This grammatical construction communicates absolute certainty.  A good renduring of it would be "for sure."  Paul is telling us we will suffer."
     B. Present and Future Compared (vv. 18)
     C. Analogy and Principles Shared (vv. 19-22)
"When all believers are finally glorified--fully transformed in body and soul to the image of Christ--the universe will be recreated to a state as lest equal to its condition before the Fall of man (Rev. 21-22)"
          1. Groaning is temporary. (v. 19)
          2. Groaning is a consequence.  (v. 20a)
"...it was an act of God in response to man's sin. ...  God casued the earth to becaome a victim of corruption because of man's disobedience."

          3. Groaning is a means to an end. (vv. 20b-21)
          4. Groaning is universal.  (v. 22)
II.  The Response of the Sufferer.
     A. Groaning and Longing.  (v. 23)
Deep within us resides a taste of the wonderful inheritance that will one day be ours.  When we finally receive it in full, our bodies will emerge immortally whole and perfect.
     B. Hoping and Waiting  (vv.24-25)
So "with perseverance we wait eagerly" to inherit the many riches that are ours in Christ Jesus.
     C. Praying and Searching  (vv. 26-27)
As we struggle through our groans, we can rest assured that  "the Spirit... helps our weakness."
III. For Those of Us Who Suffer
     A. The greater the Groan the greater the glory.
     B. The weaker our spirit the stronger His support.


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