Saturday, September 28, 2013

17:6) What does it mean that Jehoshaphat “delighted in (NKJV), rejoiced in (HCSB)was devoted to (NIV), took great pride in (NASB), was courageous in (RSV, ESV)” (gabahh) the ways of the Lord?

Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament

       305      גָּבַה (gābah) be high, exalted.

           305a      גָּבַֹה (gābōah) high, exalted.
           305b      גֹּבַה (gōbah).height, exaltation.
           305c      גַּבְהוּת (gabhût) haughtiness (Isa 2:11, 17, only).
     The root gābah and its derivatives are used ninety-four times in the OT. The verb appears in the Qal twenty-four times, meaning basically “to be high or lofty” and in the Hiphil ten times, meaning “to make high, to exalt.” gābōah appears forty-one times, the noun gōbah seventeen times, and the noun gabhût twice. The root is used only three times in the Pentateuch (Gen 7:19; Deut 3:5; 28:52), but by contrast in the prophets cf. Isa, fourteen times; Jer, seven times; Ezk, twenty-two times.
     As the root is used in its basic sense it describes the height of persons, objects, places, and natural phenomena. Thus, the verb gābah signifies the growing of a tree (Ezk 17:24; 31:5, 10, 14); the stem of a vine (Ezk 19:11); the heavens in respect to the earth (Ps 103:11; Job 35:5). Saul is described as being “taller” than any of his people (I Sam 10:23). It describes the high wall Manasseh built around Jerusalem (II Chr 33:14). It may mean “to fly high” as an eagle (Jer 49:16; Ob 4).
     Similarly the adjective gābōah describes a high mountain(s) (Gen 7:19; Isa 30:25; 40:9; 57:7; Jer 3:6; Ezk 17:22; 40:2; Ps 104:18); high hills (I Kgs 14:23; II Kgs 17:10; Jer 2:20; 17:2); the high gates of Babylon (Jer 51:58); high battlements (Zeph 1:16); high towers (Isa 2:15); the high gallows intended for Mordecai (Est 5:14; 7:9); the horns in Daniel’s vision (Dan 8:3). Similar documentation could be made for the use of the noun gōbah.
In several places the word is used in a very positive sense both with respect to man as a quality of life worthy of possession and as descriptive of God himself. In the former category compare God’s word to Job, "Deck yourself with majesty (gāʾôn) and dignity (gōbah) (40:10; cf. 36:7) and II Chr 17:6, “Jehoshaphat’s heart was lifted up (“encouraged”) in the ways of the Lord.” Secondly, God’s position is said to be “on high” (Ps 113:5; Job 22:12) and his ways are “higher” than those of mankind (Isa 55:9).
     The usual nuance behind the words under discussion is pride or haughtiness. Of interest is the negative usage of this word in connection with some part of the human body. For example, pride is linked with the heart in: Ezk 28:2, 5, 17; Ps 131:1; Prov 18:12; II Chr 26:16; 32:25 (all with the verb); Prov 16:5; II Chr 32:26 (with adjective and noun). Isaiah 2:11; 5:15 and Ps 101:5 connect pride with the eyes. Proverbs 16:18 and Eccl 7:8 tie pride with man’s spirit, and Ps 10:4 with man’s “nose”/countenance. On a few occasions individuals are said to be guilty specifically of this sin of pride: Uzziah (II Chr 26:16); Hezekiah (II Chr 32:25–26); the prince of Tyre (Ezk 28:2, 17). Conversely, Isaiah speaks of the suffering servant who will be exalted (rûm), lifted up (nāśaʾ) and be very high (gābah) (52:13).
In the LXX the word is translated as hupsos or hupsēlos, but never as hubris.
Bibliography: TDOT, II, pp. 356–60. THAT, I, pp. 394–97.

Victor P. Hamilton, “305 גָּבַה,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 145–146.

Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew

1467 גָּבַהּ (gā·ḇǎh): v.; ≡ Str 1361; TWOT 305—1. LN 81.3–81.11 (qal) be tall, tower high, i.e., be in an elevated spatial position or dimension (1Sa 10:23; Job 35:5; Isa 55:9a; Eze 19:11; 31:5, 10, 14+); (hif) make high, grow tall, i.e., make an object be in an elevated position or dimension (2Ch 33:14; Job 5:7; 39:27; Ps 113:5; Pr 17:19; Isa 7:11; Jer 49:16; Eze 17:24; Ob 4+); 2. LN 87.19–87.57 (qal) exalt, i.e., to assign or give high status to an object as an extension of being spatially high in elevation (Job 36:7; Isa 5:16; 52:13+); (hif) exalt (Eze 21:31[EB 26]+), see also domain LN 33.354–33.364; 3. LN 88.206–88.222 (qal) be proud, haughty, arrogant, i.e., exaltation of self, as a moral failure (2Ch 26:16; 32:25; Ps 131:1; Pr 18:12; Isa 3:16; Jer 13:15; Eze 16:50; 28:2, 5, 17; Zep 3:11+); 4. LN 25.68–25.79 (qal) be devoted, formally, exalt, i.e., have a state of zeal and eagerness, with an implication of giving oneself to a behavior, as an extension of assigning high status to an object and so placing high value to it (2Ch 17:6+); 5. LN 32.19–32.23 (qal) hard to understand, formally, high, i.e., not be able to have a functional understanding of a principle or subject as a figurative extension of an object being in a high elevation and so not be able to be clearly seen (Isa 55:9b)
James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997).

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