Thursday, September 26, 2013

2 Chronicles 16.9 - loyal TWOT 2401d

Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament
     2401      שָׁלֵם (šālēm) be complete, sound.

           2401a      שָׁלוֹם (šālôm) peace.
           2401b      שֶׁלֶם (šelem) peace offering.
           2401c      שָׁלַם (šālam) be in a covenant of peace. Denominative verb.
           2401d      שָׁלֵם (šālēm) perfect, whole, full.
           2401e      שִׁלֵּם (šillēm) recompense (Deut 32:35, only).
           2401f      שַׁלְמֹן (šalmōn) reward, bribe (Isa 1:23, only).
           2401g      שִׁלּוּם (šillûm), שִׁלֻּם (šillūm) recompense, reward.
           2401h      שִׁלֻּמָה (šillūmâ) reward (Ps 91:8, only).
           2401i      שְׁלֹמֹה (šĕlōmōh) Solomon.

     The general meaning behind the root š-l-m is of completion and fulfillment—of entering into a state of wholeness and unity, a restored relationship.
     Of this group, some take their meanings from the comparatively infrequent simple stems while the others šillēm, šillûm, and possibly šalmôn reflect the intensive Piel sense. The apparant diversity of meanings between the two stems can be accounted for in terms of the concept of peace being restored through payment (of tribute to a conqueror, Josh 10:1), restitution (to one wronged, Ex 21:36), or simple payment and completion (of a business transaction, II Kgs 4:7).
     The payment of a vow (Ps 50:14) completes an agreement so that both parties are in a state of šālôm. Closely linked with this concept is the eschatological motif in some uses of the term. Recompense for sin, either national or personal, must be given. Once that obligation has been met, wholeness is restored (Isa 60:20; Joel 2:25).
Adjectivally, šālēm is used of an attitude (a “perfect” heart; e.g. I Kgs 8:61; I Chr 28:9), and of a complete amount (of money, Ruth 2:12; of sin, Gen 15:16; of a whole nation, Amos 1:6, 9). An accurate weight is called “perfect” (Deut 25:15) or “just” (Prov 11:1).
     Interesting is that šālēm is used of the whole (i.e. uncut) stones for the altar (Deut 27:6; Josh 8:31) and also of the dressed stones used for the temple (I Kgs 6:7).
G. Lloyd Carr, “2401 שָׁלֵם,” ed. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 930–931.

Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words
A. Verb. 
shalam (שָׁלַם, 7999), “to finish, complete, repay, reward.” The Hebrew root denotes perfection in the sense that a condition or action is “complete.” This concept emerges when a concrete object is described. When sufficient building materials were at hand and workmen had enough time to apply them, “the wall [of Jerusalem] was finished” at the time of Nehemiah (Neh. 6:15). However, this Hebrew root is also found in words with so many nuances and applications that at times its original and basic intent is all but obscured. In the nasb, for example, shalam is represented with such words as: “fulfill, make up, restore, pay, repay, full, whole, wholly, entire, without harm, friendly, peaceably, to be at peace, make peace, safe, reward, retribution, restitution, recompense, vengeance, bribe, peace offering.” 
Perfection and completeness is primarily attributed to God. He is deficient in nothing; His attributes are not marred by any shortcomings; His power is not limited by weakness. God reminded Job of His uninhibited independence and absolute self-sufficiency: “Who hath prevented me, that I should repay him? Whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine” (Job 41:11). And Job himself admitted: “And who shall repay him what he hath done?” (Job 21:31). 
Without any deficiency or flaw in executing justice, God is likewise never lacking in mercy and power to bestow benevolences of every kind. Job is told by his friend: “If thou wert pure … he would make the habitation of thy righteousness prosperous” (Job 8:6). He can make it happen that “… to the righteous good shall be repaid” (Prov. 13:21). Cyrus says of the Lord: “He … shall perform all my pleasure” (Isa. 44:28). The Lord will also “… restore comforts unto him and to his mourners” who wept in the Babylonian exile (Isa. 57:18). 
The God of perfect justice and goodness expects total devotion from His creatures. Job, suspected of not rendering the required obedience to his Maker, is therefore urged to “be at peace [with God]” (Job 22:21). 
The concept of meeting one’s obligation in full is basic in human relationships. Israel’s social law required that the person causing injury or loss “… shall surely make it good” (Exod. 22:14). “And he that killeth a beast shall make it good; beast for beast” (Lev. 24:18). In some instances, an offender “… shall pay double unto his neighbor” (Exod. 22:9). David declared that the rich man who slaughtered the poor man’s only lamb “… shall restore the lamb fourfold …” (2 Sam. 12:6). Debts were not to be left unpaid. After providing the widow with the amount needed, Elisha directed her: “Go sell the oil, and pay [shalam] thy debt …” (2 Kings 4:7). “The wicked borroweth, and payeth not again …” (Ps. 37:21). A robber who has mended his ways “… give[s] again that he had robbed …” (Ezek. 33:15). 
National relationships were established on the basis of “complete” negotiations. Thus cities and peoples “made peace with Israel” after they agreed to Joshua’s stipulations (Josh. 10:1). War between the two kingdoms ended when Jehoshaphat “… made peace with the king of Israel” (1 Kings 22:44). 
B. Adjective. 
shalem (שָׁלֵם, 8003), “perfect.” God demanded total obedience from His people: “Let [their] heart therefore be perfect with the Lord our God, to walk in his statutes, and to keep his commandments …” (1 Kings 8:61). Solomon failed to meet this requirement because “… his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God” (1 Kings 11:4). Hezekiah, on the other hand, protested: “… I have walked before thee in truth and with a perfect heart” (2 Kings 20:3). 
In business transactions, the Israelites were required to “… have a perfect and just weight, a perfect and just measure …” (Deut. 25:15).  
W. E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger, and William White Jr., Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville, TN: T. Nelson, 1996), 44.

Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
i. שָׁלֵם S7999, 8003, 8004 TWOT2401, 2401c, 2401d GK8966, 8969, 8970, 8971 adj. complete, safe, at peace;—שׁ׳ Gn 15:16 +; pl. שְׁלֵמִים Gn 34:21 Na 1:12; f. שְׁלֵמָה Dt 25:15 +; pl. שְׁלֵמוֹת 27:6 Jos 8:31;— 1. complete: a. full, perfect: אֶבֶן שְׁלֵמָה full weight Dt 25:15 Pr 11:1, אֵיפָה שׁ׳ Dt 25:15; of עָוֹן Gn 15:16 (JE); number of captives Am 1:6, 9; of army Na 1:12 (text corrupt; G משֵׁל מַיִם, but?; v. Comm.); of reward Ru 2:12; of stones, whole (in natural condition, unhewn) Dt 27:6 Jos 8:31 (cf. law Ex 20:25). b. finished: i.e. hewn stones 1 K 6:7; temple 2 Ch 8:16. 2. safe, unharmed, of pers. Gn 33:18 (P; Sam. שׁלוֹם, cf. בשׁלום 28:21; not as Vrss). 3. in covt. of peace, friendship, c. אֵת Gn 34:21 (P); לֵבָב שָׁלֵם עִם י׳ a mind at peace with י׳, keeping covt. relation, hence complete, perfect, 1 K 8:61; 11:4; 15:3, 14; c. אֶל 2 Ch 16:9, אֶל om. 2 K 20:3 = Is 38:3 (לֵב), 1 Ch 12:38; 29:19 2 Ch 15:17; 19:9; 25:2; לֵב 1 Ch 28:9; 29:9.
Francis Brown, Samuel Rolles Driver, and Charles Augustus Briggs, Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 2000), 1023–1024.

Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew
8969 II. שָׁלֵם (šā·lēm): adj.; Str 8003; TWOT 2401d—1. LN 68.22–68.33 completely, fully, richly, i.e., pertaining to what is fully accomplished (Ge 15:16; Ru 2:12+); 2. LN 21.9–21.13 safe, i.e., pertaining to not being in danger (Ge 33:18+); 3. LN 34.1–34.21 friendly, i.e., pertaining to being in a relatively close association, personal or governmental (Ge 34:21; Na 1:12+); 4. LN 72.12–72.22 accurate, i.e., pertaining to that which is true to an accepted norm or standard (Dt 25:15(2×); Pr 11:1+); 5. LN 59.23–59.34 whole, i.e., pertaining to the totality of a collection (Am 1:6, 9; Dt 27:6; Jos 8:31; 1Ki 6:7+), note: in context, refers to towns, and whole, uncut stone; 6. LN 25.33–25.58 fully devoted, i.e., have a great love and zeal, implying obedience (1Ki 8:61; 11:4; 15:3, 14; 2Ki 20:3; 1Ch 12:39[EB 38]; 28:9; 29:9, 19; 2Ch 15:17; 16:9; 19:9; 25:2; Isa 38:3+), note: some sources parse 2Ch 8:16 as 8966
James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997).

No comments:

Post a Comment