I want to encourage you to be in a habit of reading through the Bible.
Noticing that OT verses are used in the New Testament can help us as we read through the OT.
1. What OT books are most quoted or alluded to in the NT?
According to the BlueLetterBible:
2. Exodus 20 (Deuteronomy 5) is the most commonly referred to chapter.
3. What verses are most often referred to?
3. Psalm 118.22, Isaiah 6.9 & Exodus 20,12 —–—— 6 times
2. Psalm 110.1 ———— 8 times
1. Leviticus 19.17-18 — 10 times (1) &Matt 18.15; Luke 17.3
4. Right here in Leviticus 19 is verse the most quoted and alluded to in the N.T. Turn to Leviticus 19 and look through the chapter to see if you can figure out which verse it is.
5. PURPOSE STATEMENT: Tonight we will ...
· look at the context of these verses
· look at the meaning of these verses
· review the NT allusions to these verses
· and hopefully make some applications along the way.
· Explain the “story books” and “supplemental information” books
· Leviticus fits in with the Exodus part of the story of the OT
· Egypt, Red Sea, manna, water from the rock, Mount Sinai, 10 commands, Moses up the mountain, golden calf, second session on the Mountain (tabernacle & offerings instructions), dedication of the tabernacle, then God gives Moses Leviticus.
· 1-8 Get right with God — sacrifices
· 9-10 Stories about the priests
· 11-26 Stay right with God — rules for the nation’s separated, holy living
· Chapter 19 is about social regulations
A. I AM the Lord and the immediate context
Notice the pattern of concluding each section with “I am the Lord.” The expression “I am the Lord” has an interesting history.
Ex 5.2 Pharaoh tell Moses and Aaron, “Who is the Lord that I should obey Him?”
Ex. 6.7 God tells Moses how He will bring judgments and rescue Israel, Then you shall know that I am the Lord.”
Ex 7.5 “And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I stretch out my hand on Egypt.”
Ex 7.17 (plague of blood) by this you will know that I am the Lord
Ex 8.22 Moses tell pharaoh that God will not send the flies on Goshen, “in order that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of the land.”
Ex. 9.14 (hail) I will send all My plagues to your very heart, and on your servants and on your people, that you may know the there is none like Me in all the earth.
9.20 He who feared the Word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh made his servant and his livestock flee to the houses.
The expression “I am the Lord” was meant to say “I mean business. Don’t ignore me.”
The OT verse most referred to in the NT is in the section that include verses 17 & 18.
B. Explanation of verses 17 & 18
17 'You shall not hate your brother in your heart. You shall surely rebuke your neighbor, and not bear sin because of him. cross references / Matt 18.15; Luke 17.3
Matthew 18:15 "Moreover if your brother sins against you, go and tell him his fault between you and him alone. If he hears you, you have gained your brother.
Luke 17:3 “Take heed to yourselves. If your brother sins against you, rebuke him; and if he repents, forgive him.”
· 2272 śānē˒) hate, to be hateful. The verb śānē and its derivatives have the root meaning “to hate.” It expresses an emotional attitude toward persons and things which are opposed, detested, despised and with which one wishes to have no contact or relationship. It is therefore the opposite of love. Whereas love draws and unites, hate separates and keeps distant. Harris, R. L., Harris, R. L., Archer, G. L., & Waltke, B. K. (1999, c1980). Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (electronic ed.) (879). Chicago: Moody Press
· Hate is part of the old life. (Titus 3.2-3)
· “rebuke your neighbor” —- Resolve conflicts. Don’t let things fester.
· “not bear sin because of him.” —-
“I will allow no man to drag me down so low as to make me hate him. No race can hate another without itself being narrowed and hated. Character, not circumstances, makes the man.” ———-Booker T. Washington
Hate injures as much or more than the person we hate.
18 You shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord.
a) Deut. 32.35 “Vengeance is Mine, and recompense; Their foot shall slip in due time; For the day of their calamity is at hand, And the things to come hasten upon them.' 36 "For the Lord will judge His people And have compassion on His servants,”
b) bear any grudge (naw-tar) : to keep, keep guard, reserve, maintain
· The picture is of a farmer who watches or guards his vineyard.
· It is also used in the sense of nurturing, keeping or cherishing one’s anger or wrath.
· “A grudge is the only thing that doesn’t get better when it is nursed.”
C. New Testament allusions and quotes
Matt 5. Sermon on the mount
43 "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' 44 But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you, 45 that you may be sons of your Father in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust. 46 For if you love those who love you, what reward have you? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? 47 And if you greet your brethren only, what do you do more than others? Do not even the tax collectors do so? 48 Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.
· Notice the opposites love-hate; bless-curse; do good-hate; pray-spitefully use, persecute
· How to fight Satan comments
· “Neighbor” includes our enemies.
· § Love—If the sun shown on you today, God loves you.
· It is how we show we are our heavenly Father’s sons.
· Self interest versus true love. Love is given without thought to what you will get in return.
· Love is necessary to be “perfect” or complete tevleioß .
Matt 19. SUMMER—-29 MINISTRY IN AND AROUND PEREA The Rich Young Ruler
16 Now behold, one came and said to Him, "Good Teacher, what good thing shall I do that I may have eternal life?"
17 So He said to him, "... But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments."
18 He said to Him, "Which ones?"
Jesus said, "'You shall not murder,' 'You shall not commit adultery,' 'You shall not steal,' 'You shall not bear false witness,' 19 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' "
20 The young man said to Him, "All these things I have kept from my youth. What do I still lack?"
21 Jesus said to him, "If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow Me." 22 But when the young man heard that saying, he went away sorrowful, for he had great possessions.
· § “good thing shall I do” O-Precious Blood of Only Son—Salvation is not what I do; It is what Christ did.
· In spite of his contention that he was following the commandments, there was something that he was holding on to.
· This prompts me to think, “What do I have that I am not willing to invest in heaven?”
· To be “perfect” or complete, we must be willing to let go of anything we have.
Matt 22.37 LAST WEEK after Triumphant Entry a lawyer testing Christ
35 Then one of them, a lawyer, asked Him a question, testing Him, and saying, 36 "Teacher, which is the great commandment in the law?"
37 Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 38 This is the first and great commandment. 39 And the second is like it: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 40 On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets."
· This and “the first and great commandment” are the two guiding principles behind all the laws God gave.
· If you think that learning the 10 Commandments is too difficult, start by learning and understanding these two. All the law belongs under one of these two commands.
Mark 12. LAST WEEK after Triumphant Entry
28 Then one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, perceiving that He had answered them well, asked Him, "Which is the first commandment of all?"
29 Jesus answered him, "The first of all the commandments is: 'Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. 30 And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 31 And the second, like it, is this: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these."
32 So the scribe said to Him, "Well said, Teacher. You have spoken the truth, for there is one God, and there is no other but He. 33 And to love Him with all the heart, with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love one's neighbor as oneself, is more than all the whole burnt offerings and sacrifices."
34 Now when Jesus saw that he answered wisely, He said to him, "You are not far from the kingdom of God." But after that no one dared question Him.
· Loving one’s neighbor is more important than all the offerings and sacrifices.
· Love is not something we do to convince someone to become a Christian. It is just the core of who we are as Christians.
· Behold to love “is better than sacrifice” too. 1 Samuel 15.22
· Understanding the importance of love is an indication that one is “not far from the kingdom of God.”
Luke 10. FALL 29—LATTER JUDEAN MINISTRY Parable of the Good Samaritan
25 And behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested Him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?"
26 He said to him, "What is written in the law? What is your reading of it?"
27 So he answered and said, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind,' and 'your neighbor as yourself.' "
28 And He said to him, "You have answered rightly; do this and you will live."
29 But he, wanting to justify himself, said to Jesus, "And who is my neighbor?"
30 Then Jesus answered and said: "A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, who stripped him of his clothing, wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 31 Now by chance a certain priest came down that road. And when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 32 Likewise a Levite, when he arrived at the place, came and looked, and passed by on the other side. 33 But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. And when he saw him, he had compassion. 34 So he went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine; and he set him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 35 On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, gave them to the innkeeper, and said to him, 'Take care of him; and whatever more you spend, when I come again, I will repay you.' 36 So which of these three do you think was neighbor to him who fell among the thieves?"
37 And he said, "He who showed mercy on him."
Then Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise."
· § “to justify himself” — Sin and need of a Justifier (Someone to fix not just fake it, pretend.)
· Love involves mercy or compassion. He showed ...
· Our neighbor is someone we see who needs us.
· Love is demonstrated by things we do to help others.
Romans 13.8 Owe no one anything except to love one another, for he who loves another has fulfilled the law. 9 For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not bear false witness," "You shall not covet," and if there is any other commandment, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." 10 Love does no harm to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.
· We have a debt or obligation to love.
· Loving is at mandatory as paying a debt.
· Being obligated to love is a good thing.
· Loving is the fulfillment of the law.
Galatians 5. 13 For you, brethren, have been called to liberty; only do not use liberty as an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this: "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." 15 But if you bite and devour one another, beware lest you be consumed by one another! 16 I say then: Walk in the Spirit, and you shall not fulfill the lust of the flesh. 17 For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one another, so that you do not do the things that you wish. 18 But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.
· Loving is a purpose of our liberty.
· If we don’t love we are in danger of “devouring ourselves.”
· Loving is a result of walking in the Spirit. It is not a fleshly instinct.
James 2.1 My brethren, do not hold the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, with partiality. 2 For if there should come into your assembly a man with gold rings, in fine apparel, and there should also come in a poor man in filthy clothes, 3 and you pay attention to the one wearing the fine clothes and say to him, "You sit here in a good place," and say to the poor man, "You stand there," or, "Sit here at my footstool," 4 have you not shown partiality among yourselves, and become judges with evil thoughts? 5 Listen, my beloved brethren: Has God not chosen the poor of this world to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom which He promised to those who love Him? 6 But you have dishonored the poor man. Do not the rich oppress you and drag you into the courts? 7 Do they not blaspheme that noble name by which you are called?
8 If you really fulfill the royal law according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well; 9 but if you show partiality, you commit sin, and are convicted by the law as transgressors. 10 For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he is guilty of all.
· Love is a demonstration of or a result of our faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.
· Love does not show partiality.
· Treating someone well because of their status is not love.
· It is especially important to love the poor and undesirable. The harder it is to love someone, the more important it is to do so.
· Not loving makes us a “transgressor.”
· Admit that you fall short.
· Avail yourself of God’s love for you and provision through Christ’s death and resurrection.
· John 1:12 “But as many as received...
· Love is not a theoretical, abstract idea for discussion and dissection.
· It is not a command, it is the command.
· It has to be active, something you do, and intentional, it does not come natural.