1.8 listen... It is interesting that when I taught, the lowest scores on the achievement tests tended to be on "listening skills." That thought highlights the importance of teaching our kids to do this first word. Is it two corny for parents to ask their kids to repeat back to them what they just said, to make it inconvenient for kids to have to ask you to repeat something they should have heard, or have them summarize and repeat what you read to them on a page during story time?
1.8 to your father's instruction...
877b מוּסָר (mûsār) discipline.
The LXX translates primarily as paideuo, which emphasizes the notion of education. The Ugaritic cognate ysr meaning “to chasten, instruct” (UT 19: no. 1120).
From the usage and parallels in the ot, one must conclude that yāsar and mûsāryāsar is used in the formula “I will chastise (NASB punish) you seven times for your sins,” with a clear parallel in v. 24, “I will punish you seven times” (nākâ “to beat, strike, hit”). God’s corrective discipline seeks the reformation of the people (v. 23). The other six uses in the Pentateuch are found in Deut, the all important covenant renewal document. Key to an understanding of mûsār is Deut 11:2ff’., “Consider the discipline of the Lord your God, his greatness, … his signs and his deeds which he did in Egypt to Pharaoh … , and what he did to the army of Egypt … , and what he did for you in the wilderness.” In short, the mûsār of Yahweh is his mighty activity in covenant history by which he reveals himself (cf. v. 7 with 4:35f.). denote correction which results in education. The theological basis for discipline is grounded in the covenant relationship which Yahweh establishes with his people. The words are found almost ninety times, nine times in the Pentateuch, twenty-six times in the prophets, and fifty times in the Hagiographa. (thirty-six of these in Prov). In Lev 26:18, 28
The discipline of Yahweh is not to be taken negatively, for the hardships in the wilderness were balanced by his miraculous provisions both designed to test “what was in your heart, whether you would keep his commandments or not” (Deut 8:2). Hence, by their hunger, as well as by the manna which he provided, they were to “understand that man does not live by bread alone, but … by everything that proceeds from the mouth of Yahweh” (8:3). Thus, they were to know in their hearts that Yahweh was disciplining them (8:5). This discipline then might be considered education that is theocentric, indeed, theofugal. That Deut 8:5 uses the comparative expression “as a man disciplines his son” is not without covenantal and theological significance. The ancient treaties often refer to the suzerain king as a father and to the vassal as his son (cf. McCarthy, CBQ 27:144–47). In Moses’ covenant hymn we read that Yahweh is referred to as Father (Deut 32:6; cf. 1:31; Isa 1:2) of the covenant people (although Ex 4:22; Deut 1:31 teach the same concept). Hence, the theological basis for an earthly father’s discipline over his son is in the covenant. He bears the image of his covenant Lord, and as such stands in parallel relationship over his children—chastening, correcting, instructing, providing—which are expressions of an interpersonal relationship of love. So also the thirty usages in Prov and elsewhere, e.g. Prov 3:11–12 where mûsār and tōkaḥat “reproof, correction” are said to come from Yahweh “for whom the Lord loves (ʾāhab) he reproves (yākaḥ), even as a father the son in whom he delights.” Hence, discipline gives assurance of sonship, for mûsār primarily points to a God-centered way of life, and only secondarily to ethical behavior. Proverbs 1:7 couples it with the “fear of Yahweh,” and 1:8 with tôrâmûsār (8:10) and the reason why fools despise it (15:5, 32). Proverbs and other wisdom literature speak of discipline with emphasis on instruction. It is tempting to see that the seemingly disparate notions of correction and instruction converge beautifully only in the covenant. “instruction, teaching.” Hence, also the pricelessness of
How was discipline administered? Proverbs 22:15 speaks of the “rod of correction.” But most often, mûsār is oral instruction, hence the close association with the tôrâ. In Job 5:17 ff., when he urges Job not to “despise the discipline of the Almighty,” Eliphaz shows insight concerning the means which God may use to discipline his children: pain and wounds, famine and war. Amos would add drought, mildew, locusts, epidemics, and earthquakes (4:6–11).
The prophets develop the theme of mûsār as in Deut 11:2, revealing God’s discipline through his mighty acts in the.history of the people of Israel and Judah in particular and the nations in general. God deals with his people from the standpoint of warning and correction. The severity of the exile must be thus understood (cf. Hos 5:2; 7:12; Isa 8:11). But all such discipline becomes futile through the resistance and stubbornness of those to whom it is given (cf. Jer 2:30; 5:3; 7:28; 17:23; 32:33). Isaiah 53:5 adds “the chastisement of our peace was upon him” (RSV “the chastisement that made us whole”). This is clearly a context of substitutionary atonement. Here the Servant of the Lord is seen as taking “the severe punishment” vicariously, more clearly revealing God’s merciful ways of dealing with his rebellious (pešaʿ) people through redemptive judgment and suffering.
1.8 to your mother's teaching...
תורה twrh law
†תּוֹרָה S8451, 8452 TWOT910d GK9368 n.f. Dt 1:5 direction, instruction, law (poss. in first instance from casting lots, WeG i, 410; H 394 (less confidently WeSkizzen iii, 167), SS SmAT Rel. Gesch. 36 BenzArch. 408 NowArch. ii, 97, opp. by KöOffenb. ii, 347 BaudPriest. 207);—ת׳, Ex 12:49 + 88 times; cstr. תּוֹרַת Ex 13:9 + 65 times; sfs. תּוֹרָתִי ψ 78:1 + 16 times; תֹּרָו֯תְךָ Je 32:23; תֹּרָתוֹ 44:23 + 34 times sfs.; pl. תּוֹרוֹת Ne 9:13; תּוֹרֹת Is 24:5 + 2 times; sf. תּוֹרֹתַי Ez 44:24; תּוֹרֹתָ֯ו 43:11; 44:5 + 5 times sfs.;— 1. instruction: a. human: of a mother Pr 1:8; 6:20, 23; of a father 3:1; 4:2; 7:2; of sages 13:14; 28:4(×2), 7, 9; 29:18; of a poet ψ 78:1; תּוֹרַת חֶסֶד kind instruction (of a wise wife) Pr 31:26. b. divine || אֲמָרִים Jb 22:22; through his servants Is 30:9 Je 8:8; || אִמְרָה Is 5:24; || דָּבָר Is 1:10; || תְּעוּדָה 8:16, 20; || חָזוֹן La 2:9; pl. תורות Dn 9:10. e. a body of priestly direction or instruction relating to sacred things Ho 4:6 Je 2:8; 18:18 Ez 7:26 Hag 2:11 Mal 2:6, 7, 8, 9 Zp 3:4 Ez 22:26; || לֹא תוֹרָה לֹא כֹּהֵן מוֹרֶה 2 Ch 15:3. 2. law (proposes direction): viz. a. of special laws, sg. of Feast of Maṣṣoth Ex 13:9 (J), sabbath 16:4 (J); of direction given by priests in partic. case Dt 17:11; of statutes of priest’s code Ex 12:49 (P), Lv 6:2, 7, 18; 7:1, 7, 11, 37; 11:46; 12:7; 13:59; 14:2, 32, 54, 57; 15:32 Nu 5:29, 30; 6:13, 21(×2); 15:16, 29; 19:2, 14; 31:21 (P); תּוֹרַת הַבָּיִת Ez 43:12(×2); בֵּין ת׳ לְמִצְוָה 2 Ch 19:10; pl. תּוֹרוֹת laws, || חקים Ex 18:16, 20 (E; of decisions in civil cases given by Moses), ψ 105:45; || מצות Ex 16:28 (J); || מצות, חקות Gn 26:5 (J); || חקים משׁפטים Lv 26:46 (H); || ברית, חק Is 24:5; || משׁפטים חקים, מצות Ne 9:13; the laws of the new temple Ez 43:11; 44:5, 24; those laws in which men should walk Je 32:23 (Kt). b. of codes of law, (1) הַתּוֹרָה as written in the code of the covenant, || הַמִּצְוָה Ex 24:12 (E); ספר תּוֹרַת אלהים Jos 24:26 (E); prob. also Dt 33:4; || משׁפטים v 10, || בְּרִית Ho 8:1 ψ 78:10, || עֵדוּת v 5; (2) the law of the Deuteronomic code, in D and Deuteronomic sections of Kings and sources of Chr., הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת Dt 1:5; 4:8, 44; 17:18; 31:9, 11; דִּבְרֵי הַתּ׳ הזאת 27:26; 31:24, + כל 17:19; 27:3, 8; 28:58; 29:28; 31:12; 32:46; סֵפֶר הַתּ׳ הזאת 28:61; ספר התורה הזה 29:20; 30:10; 31:26 Jos 1:8; ספר התורה 8:34 2 K 22:8 = 2 Ch 34:15; דברי התורה Jos 8:34 2 K 23:24; so התורה אשׁר צוך משׁה Jos 1:7, similarly 22:5 2 K 17:13, 34, 37; 21:8; תּוֹרַת משׁה (ספר) Jos 8:31, 32; 23:6 1 K 2:3 2 K 14:6 = הַתּ׳ בספר מ׳ 2 Ch 25:4, 2 K 23:25; דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַתּ׳ 2 K 22:11 = דברי הַתּ׳ 2 Ch 34:19; תּוֹרַת יהוה 2 K 10:31. It is probable that ת׳ in ψ 1:2(×2); 94:12 and some other parts of Chr., e.g. 1 Ch 22:12 2 Ch 6:16 ( = 1 K 8:25 without ת׳), refers to Deuteronomic code. (3) other passages of Chr. may refer to code of D, but most of them certainly refer to the law of the Priests’ code. The same is true of Mal Dn and late ψψ. The phrases are: (ספר) תורת משׁה 2 Ch 23:18; 30:16 Ezr 3:2; 7:6 Ne 8:1 Mal 3:22 Dn 9:11, 13; תורת יהוה (ספר) Ezr 7:10 Ne 9:3 1 Ch 16:40 2 Ch 12:1; 17:9; 31:3, 4; 34:14; 35:26 ψ 19:8; 119:1; (ספר) תורת האלהים Ne 8:18; 10:29, 30; ספר הַתּ׳ 8:3; דִּבְרֵי הַתּ׳ v 9, 13; הַתּוֹרָה 2 Ch 14:3; 31:21; 33:8 Ezr 10:3 Ne 8:2, 7, 14; 10:35, 37; 12:44; 13:3; תּ׳ פִּיךָ ψ 119:72; תורתך Ne 9:26, 29, 34 Dn 9:11 ψ 119:18, 29, 34, 44, 51, 53, 55, 61, 70, 77, 85, 92, 97, 109, 113, 126, 136, 142, 150, 153, 163, 165, 174; תּוֹרָה (indef.) || חקים, מצוות Ne 9:14. 3. custom, manner: תּוֹרַת הָאָדָם 2 S 7:19 the manner of man, not of God, i.e. deal with me as man with man, Thes, law for man RV, but EwGesch. iii, 180 reads דּוֹרֹת (וַתַּרְאֵנִי) hast shewed me generations of men; so We Dr.—On ת׳ v. further Dr on Dt 1:10; 24:8; 33:10 and reff.
Brown, F., Driver, S. R., & Briggs, C. A. (2000). Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (electronic ed.) (436). Oak Harbor, WA:
1.8 It should be noted that the father and mother work together in harmony teaching their children the way of the wise. It is also instructive to see the nuanced role for each implied by will do words used for what they do with their children. The mom is laying down the law in a catechism, teaching, how to behave sort of way. Dad is disciplining. Or course each parent will do both on a regular basis, even though they both have their special focus.
1.11-14 There were three things (possibly among others) that were being advertised by the sinful men: excitement, easy money, and comaraderie. It takes time, interest, and loyalty to develop comaraderie. How do you develop comaraderie with your wife and kids?
The other bad "value" the sinful men had is summarized by Waltke's quote, "Sinnners love wealth and use people; saints love people and use wealth to help others." .